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The  first  Para  Rubber  Tree  in   Uganda 
The  first  Cocoa  Tree  to  the  right 



BY     E.  \gROWN,    F.L.S. 


H.    H:    HUNTER,    LL.D. 

With  Contributions   by 



LONDON    :     :     :     LONGMANS,   GREEN   &   CO. 
DUBLIN     ::::::  THE   TALBOT   PRESS 


personalia : 

The  Authors — 

E.    BROWN,    F.L,S. 

Manager  of  the  Kivuvu  (Uganda)  Rubber  Company 

Limited,  formerly  Assistant  Botanical,  Forestry, 

and  Scientific  Department,  Uganda 

H.   H,   HUNTER,  IJ..D. 

Director  Kivuvu  (Uganda)  Rubber  Company,  L*td. 
„        Uganda  Plantations,  Limited  ; 
„        Buddu  Plantations,  Limited  ; 
and  other  Uganda  Companies 

Introduction  by 
PROF.  DUNSTAN,   C.M.G.,  F.R.S. 

Director  Imperial  Institute,  London 

President  of  the  International  Association  for 

Tropical  Agriculture 

Chapter   on   Fungoid    Diseases  by 

Mycologist  to  the  Royal  Gardens,  Kew 

-2V  7/ 


THE  need  of  a  reliable  book  dealing  with  Uganda 
has  become  urgent  owing  to  the  recent  rapid 
extension  of  planting  in  that  country.  Some  of 
the  planters  who  now  settle  there  have  had  large 
experience  of  the  work  in  other  countries,  while 
others  possess  no  knowledge  whatever  of  the 
practice  of  agriculture;  but  all  of  them  alike  suffer 
from  ignorance  of  the  peculiar  conditions  under 
which  plantations  have  to  be  worked  in  the 
Uganda  region.  For  their  benefit  generally,  as 
well  as  for  the  information  of  the  large  body  of 
investors  in  the  United  Kingdom  who  are  now 
interesting  themselves  in  Uganda  properties,  this 
book  has  been  written. 

The  authors  realise  the  imperfections  and 
incompleteness  of  the  work  in  many  directions; 
but  as  some  years  must  elapse  before  the  Uganda 
plantations  are  of  sufficient  age  to  allow  of 
definite  conclusions  being  arrived  at  on  certain 


important  points  connected  with  them,  it  was 
thought  desirable  to  publish  at  once  all  the 
information  and  experience  gained  so  far,  leaving 
the  outstanding  problems  to  be  solved  by  later 
experience,  and  then  embody  the  results  in  a 
future  edition  of  the  book.  Meanwhile  they  place 
it  before  the  public  as  the  fruit  of  a  ten  years' 
experience  in  Uganda. 

Their  thanks  are  offered  to  Professor  Dunstan, 
C.M.G.,  F.R.S.,  for  his  kindness  in  writing  the 
Introduction,  to  Mr.  G.  Massee,  F.L.S.,  for  con- 
tributing the  chapter  on  Diseases,  and  to  Mr.  F. 
Kaye,  A.R.C.SC.,  for  the  figures  of  soil  analysis. 
To  the  publishers,  too,  they  are  deeply  grateful 
for  valuable  personal  help  given  in  the  prepara- 
tion of  the  work. 

The  reports  of  the  Botanical,  Forestry,  and 
Scientific  Department,  of  the  Agricultural  Depart- 
ment, and  of  the  Government  Entomologist  have 
been  consulted  by  the  authors  on  a  variety  of 
points,  and  always  with  advantage. 

H.  H.  H. 

E.  B. 

October,  1913. 



1.  PHYSICAL  FEATURES   OF   THE   COUNTRY  :   Nature  of 

Country,  Type  of  Natural  Vegetation,  Temperature 
and  Rainfall,  Soil  Analyses  1 

2.  HISTORY  OF  PRODUCTS  IN  UGANDA:  Dates  of  Intro- 

duction, Origin,  Figures  of  Growth 12 

3.  YIELDS  AND  RESULTS  :  Age  of  coming  into  Bearing, 

Seasons  of  Crop,  Yields,  Prices  obtained 17 


5.  CHOICE  OF  LAND  FOR  PLANTATIONS  :  Choosing  Land, 

Transport     Facilities,      Indications     of     Natural 
Vegetation     43 

6.  NURSERIES  :  Propagation    48 

7.  LAYING  OUT  PLANTATION  :  Roads,  Drains,  Portioning 

out  the  Estate 57 

8.  CLEARING    AND    PLANTING  :    Clearing,    Lining    and 

Holing,    Planting,    Distances    of    Planting,    Inter- 
planting,  Provision  of  Shade,  Wind-belts 64 

9.  WEEDS  AND  WEEDING,  AND  UPKEEP  :  Types  of  Weeds, 

Plans  for  keeping  in  Check,  Cover  Plants,  Pruning, 
Manuring    76 

10.  FACTORY  AND  MACHINERY  :  Site  for  Factory,  Build- 
ings, Machinery,  Erection,  and  Arrangement 94 




Pulping,   Fermenting,   Washing,   Drying,   Peeling, 
Packing,  Losses  in  Preparation  101 


Implements,  Tapping,  Curing  and  Drying,  Packing     110 


Shelling,  Fermenting,  and  Drying  123 

14.  ESTATE  MANAGEMENT  :  Organization  of  Staff,  System 

of  Allotting  and  Checking  Work,  Office  Records...     130 


PREPARING  PRODUCTS  :  Capital  Cost,  Cost  of  Pre- 
paration, London  Charges  138 

16.  INSECT    PESTS  :    Enumeration   of    Pests,    Means    of 

Prevention  and  Remedies  142 

17.  FUNGOID  DISEASES  :  Enumeration  of  known  Diseases, 

Means  of  Prevention  and  Treatment 151 

18.  TABLE  OF  DISTANCES  FOR  PLANTING  :  Number  of  trees 

per  acre  at  various  distances  apart  168 

APPENDIX  :  Percentages  of  various  grades  of  Coffee  in 

consignments  differently  prepared  16ft 



Frontispiece — The  first  Para  Rubber  Tree  in  Uganda.  Also 

the  first  Cocoa  Tree  to  the  right  of  it. 


1.  Long,  gentle  slopes,  ideal  Plantation  Land  2 

2.  Cocoa  in  a  forest  glade  3 

3.  Para  Rubber,  3  years  old 12 

4.  Para  Rubber,  4  years  old  ., 12 

5.  Para  Rubber,  4  years  old  14 

6.  Para  Rubber,   4  years  old  15 

7.  Cocoa,  2  years  old,  in  banana  shade  16 

8.  Cocoa,  4  years  old,  shade  partially  removed  17 

9.  Cocoa,  4  years  old,  shade  removed  18 

10.  Coffee,   2|  years  old,  between  Para   19 

11.  Coffee,  3  years  old,  in  fruit  20 

12.  Coffee,  3  years  old,  in  fruit  and  flower  20 

13.  Para  Rubber,  5  years  old  21 

14.  Cocoa.     A  crop  at  5  years,  unshaded  22 

15.  Coffee,  5  years  old  24 

16.  Coffee,  5  years  old,  between  Para  26 

17.  Para  Rubber  Field,  5  years  old  28 

18.  Making  pots  of  the  banana  leaf -stalk  50 

19.  Coffee  Nursery,  grown  entirely  without  shade  54 

20.  Coffee,  4  years  old,  in  fruit  between  Para  58 

21.  Coffee  in  flower  between  Para  60 

22.  Coffee  in  flower  between  Para  ..  62 



23.  Para  Rubber,  4  years  old,  Coffee  between  64 

24.  Cocoa,  5  years  old,  between  Para  72 

25.  Common  Weeds  ("  Elephant  Grass")   76 

26.  Common  Weeds  ("  Lusanke ")  76 

27.  Common   Weeds   ("  Kasibanti ")   78 

28.  Common  Weeds  ("Nku")  78 

29.  Common  Weeds  ("  Lumbugu  ")  79 

30.  Common   Weeds   ("  Knku ")    79 

31.  Common  Weeds  ("Kamukasa")  80 

32.  Common  Weeds  ("Mbogi")  80 

33.  Common  Weeds  ("Sere")  81 

34.  Common  Weeds  ("Sezera")  81 

35.  Common  Weeds  ("Nanda"),  yellow  82 

36.  Common  Weeds  ("Nanda"),  blue  82 

37.  Full  spiral  tapping  of  Para  Rubber  112 

38.  Herring-bone  tapping  to  6  ft.  of  Para  Rubber  114 

39.  Basal  V-tapping  of  Para  Rubber  114 

40.  Estate  Labour   130 

41.  Illustrations  of  Fungoid  Diseases   158 

Map    No.     1. — Africa,     showing    geographical    position  of 

Map    No.    2. — Uganda    Protectorate,    showing    position  of 
existing  plantations 

The  illustrations  are  all  from  photographs   by   E.    BROWN 
and  are  copyright. 


I  HAVE  been  asked  by  the  authors  of  this  book,  who 
are  pioneers  in  the  agricultural  development  of 
Uganda,  to  write  a  few  words  of  introduction  to  a 
subject  with  which  the  Imperial  Institute  has  been 
intimately  associated. 

The  success  which  is  now  attending  agricultural 
enterprise  in  the  Protectorate  has  been  promoted 
chiefly  through  the  unremitting  work  of  the  small 
department  established  by  Government,  which 
until  its  recent  enlargement  was  known  as  the 
Scientific  and  Forestry  Department.  Its  first 
head  was  Mr.  Alexander  Whyte,  who  was 
succeeded  by  Mr.  M.  T.  Dawe,  to  whose  energy 
and  abilities  much  of  the  success  is  due,  and  of 
whose  staff  one  of  the  present  authors,  Mr.  Brown, 
was  a  member. 


The  great  possibilities  of  agriculture  in  Uganda, 
referred  to  in  Sir  Harry  Johnston's  standard 
work,  are  being  rapidly  realised.  The  subject  is 
of  exceptional  interest,  since  most  of  the  agricul- 
tural districts  are  at  an  altitude  of  3,000  feet  or 

The  remarkable  progress  shown  in  Cotton 
cultivation,  which  is  largely  in  native  hands, 
owes  much  to  the  careful  preliminary  investiga- 
tion and  guidance  of  Mr.  P.  H.  Lamb,  now 
of  Northern  Nigeria,  who  was  the  first  head 
of  the  new  Agricultural  Department,  and  his 
staff,  whose  efforts  were  chiefly  directed  to  the 
establishment  of  an  acclimatised  type  of  Cotton. 
The  Cotton  of  Uganda  is  now  being  grown  of 
a  definite  grade,  and  from  small  beginnings  has 
taken  its  place  among  the  standard  cottons  of 
British  commerce.  Cotton,  however,  is  so  far 
almost  entirely  the  subject  of  cultivation  by 
natives,  with  whom  the  British  Cotton  Growing 
Association  have  established  satisfactory  relations. 


The  annual  value  of  the  crop  already  exceeds  a 
quarter  of  a  million  sterling. 

The  present  book  embodies  the  practical 
experience  of  the  authors  principally  in  the 
establishment  in  Uganda  of  Para  Rubber 
(Hevea  Brasiliensis),  Coffee,  and  Cocoa,  and  is 
mainly  intended  to  guide  other  planters  who  are 
being  attracted  to  the  country  by  the  success  which 
has  been  achieved,  by  the  healthy  climate,  and 
by  the  increased  transport  and  other  facilities 
which  are  to  be  provided  in  the  near  future  with 
the  assistance  of  the  Imperial  Government. 

The  introduction  of  the  Para  Rubber  Tree  to 
certain  districts  of  Uganda  has  so  far  been  an 
unqualified  success.  The  trees  have  grown  well, 
and  for  their  age  have  furnished  a  satisfactory 
yield  of  Rubber  of  good  quality.  Although  the 
native  Rubber  tree  (Funtumia  elastica)  grows 
abundantly  in  the  forests  and  has  been  the  chief 
source  of  Uganda  Rubber,  it  now  seems  certain 
that  in  the  many  districts  where  the  Para  tree  will 


thrive,  this  exotic  tree  is  destined  to  become  the 
chief,  if  not  the  only,  source  of  Rubber  exported 
from  the  country.  The  authors  record  their  own 
valuable  experience  in  the  planting  and  treatment 
of  this  tree. 

Coffee,  also,  has  been  a  great  success.  Several 
kinds  of  Coffee  are  being  grown,  but  chiefly  Coffea 
arabica.  The  product  of  Uganda  has  been  well 
received  commercially.  Unfortunately  the  serious 
news  has  just  arrived  of  the  appearance  of  Coffee 
leaf  disease.  This  fungoid  disease  being  in- 
digenous will,  it  is  hoped,  be  easier  to  deal  with 
than  proved  to  be  the  case  in  Ceylon,  where  its 
unfortunate  introduction  caused  vast  damage,  and 
finally  led  to  the  abandonment  of  a  crop  which  at- 
one time  promised  to  be  the  chief  agricultural 
product  of  the  island. 

A  botanist  of  great  distinction,  the  late 
Professor  Marshall  Ward,  was  sent  out  to 
investigate  the  nature  of  the  disease,  which  he  did 
with  great  thoroughness,  but  be  failed  to  find  a 


remedy,  and  although  nearly  forty  years  have 
elapsed,  a  means  of  eradicating  this  fungus,  when 
once  firmly  established,  has  not  been  discovered. 
The  information  given  by  the  authors  and  by  Mr. 
George  Massee  in  the  useful  account  of  fungoid 
diseases  which  he  contributes  to  this  book,  will  at 
least  enable  the  planter  to  recognise  this  formid- 
able pest  and  to  arrest  its  progress.  Systematic 
work  with  a  view  to  the  discovery  of  a  means  of 
eradicating  this  fungus  (Hemileia  Vastatrix)  is. 
one  of  the  pressing  needs  of  tropical  agriculture, 
and  the  discovery  of  a  fungoid  resistant  Coffee 
ought  not  be  beyond  the  skill  of  modern  Science. 
The  failure  of  all  attempts  so  far  made  alone 
stands  in  the  way  of  Coffee  cultivation  in  many 
promising  countries. 

Cocoa  has  succeeded  in  those  parts  of  Uganda 
in  which  the  climate  is  suitable,  and  as  these 
districts  are  extensive,  Uganda  bids  fair  to 
imitate  the  example  of  the  Gold  Coast,  which  in 


a  few  years  has  become  one  of  the  chief  Cocoa- 
producing  countries  of  the  world. 

On  many  of  the  views  advanced  by  the  authors 
there  will,  no  doubt,  be  differences  of  opinion  among 
tropical  agriculturists,  but  those  who  are  attracted 
by  the  agricultural  promise  of  Uganda  will  find 
much  that  is  of  practical  value  and  guidance  in 
this  book.  Eeference  may  also  be  made  to  the 
numerous  articles  on  the  agricultural  resources  of 
Uganda  which  have  appeared  in  the  Bulletin  of 
the  Imperial  Institute,  and  especially  to  that  by 
Mr.  P.  H.  Lamb  entitled  "Recent  Agricultural 
Developments  in  Uganda  "  (vol.  x.,  p.  422). 


Imperial  Institute, 

October,  1913. 



Physical  Features  of  the  Country 

Nature  of  the  Country. — The  part  of  the 
"  Uganda  Protectorate"  which  at  present  attracts 
planters  is  the  region  lying  along  the  northern  and 
north-western  shores  of  the  Victoria  Nyanza, 
Other  parts  doubtless  possess  equal  or  greater 
natural  advantages,  but,  unlike  this,  they  have  not 
yet  been  opened  up  by  railways  or  roads,  and  so  the 
immigrant  fights  shy  of  settling  in  them.  The  two 
provinces  comprised  in  this  region  are  known 
respectively  as  the  Uganda  Province,  or  Buganda, 
and  the  Central  Province,  or  Busoga.  Their 
elevation  above  the  sea-level  is  about  four  thousand 
feet,  and  the  Equator  divides  their  entire  area 
into  two  almost  equal  parts. 

(D  24'J) 


The  two  provinces  are  different  in  character. 
Buganda  has  numerous  hills,  long  and  low,  and 
very  regularly  placed.  The  hill-tops  are  only  a 
few  hundred  feet  above  the  level  of  the  lake ;  and 
as  the  slopes  are  long  they  are  generally  cultivable 
to  the  top.  The  bottom  of  a  valley  is  usually 
occupied  by  a  narrow  swamp  or  stream,  which  in 
the  more  rainy  districts  is  fringed  with  forest. 
The  country,  being  thus  well  drained,  is  admirably 
suited  for  the  purposes  of  plantation.  Springs 
are  very  common  :  indeed  they  occur  so  frequently 
that  one  is  almost  certain  anywhere  of  finding 
water  within  a  few  hundred  yards.  The  whole 
district  is  well  watered.  A  stone  outcrop  often 
occurs  on  the  hilltop  or  on  the  higher  slopes. 
There  is  generally  very  little  forest  land,  and  no 
large  unbroken  forest  is  to  be  seen.  Busoga  differs 
from  Buganda  in  that  its  surface  is  broken  only  by 
gentle  undulations.  Hills  being  absent,  the 
streams  and  springs  are  lacking  also,  so  that  the 
province  is  very  badly  watered.  A  result  of  this 
is  that  there  are  no  forests.  Of  the  two  provinces 
Buganda  is  the  one  most  favoured  from  a  planter's 
point  of  view.  At  the  present  time  work  in 
Busoga  is  hampered  by  the  scarcity  of  local  labour. 



Type  of  'Natural  Vegetation. — As  stated  above, 
there  are  few  forests  throughout  the  country,  and 
of  those  that  exist  none  is  of  any  considerable  size. 
Though  small,  however,  they  are  very  dense  and 
luxuriant.  They  consist  of  a  heavy  growth  of 
high  timber,  intricately  matted  with  large 
creepers,  and  surrounded  by  a  dense  undergrowth. 
The  planter  in  selecting  his  land  naturally  avoids 
these  little  forests,  but  they  are  liable  to  be  en- 
croached upon  and  destroyed  by  the  .natives,  and  it 
is  to  be  hoped  that  the  Government  will  take  timely 
and  effective  steps  to  secure  them  against  this 

The  bulk  of  the  land  is  under  a  dense  growth 
of  'Elephant  Grass"  (Penniseium  setosum). 
This  grass,  which  forms  a  compact  solid  growth 
effectually  killing  out  all  smaller  weeds,  grows  to 
a  height  of  about  10  feet.  It  is  interspersed  here 
and  there  with  large  trees  and  clumps  of  bush. 
The  trees  are  "  Muvule  "  (Chlorophora  excelsa) 
and  "  Mimosa  "  (Acacia  Spp.).  The  bush  is  very 
varied,  and  often  thorny. 

The  grass  is  burnt  off  every  year  in  the  dry 
season,  which  effectually  prevents  a  reversion  of 
the  land  to  forest.  The  "  Elephant  Grass  "  land 


will  be  found  to  be  always  well  drained  and  to 
consist  of  deep  rich  soil.  Lower  land,  which  is 
imperfectly  drained,  will  often  be  found  covered 
with  "Lusanke"  grass  (Imperata  arundinacea} 
and  a  mixture  of  flowering  herbs,  or  a  dense 
growth  of  small  "  Mimosa  "  with  Palms  (Phoenix 

Occasional  patches,  particularly  near  forest, 
will  be  found  covered  with  a  growth  of  "  Matovu  " 
(Acanthus  arboreus).  Such  soil  is  usually  good. 

Hill-tops  or  upper  slopes  often  support  only  a 
low  vegetation  of  fine  grasses  and  small  herbs. 
This  is  generally  due  to  the  shallowness  of  the 
soil  which  covers  the  underlying  rock. 

Temperature  and  Rainfall. — The  temperature 
of  the  country,  although  it  is  on  the  Equator,  is- 
never  extreme.  The  heat  is  tempered  by  the  great 
elevation,  by  an  almost  continuous  light  breeze, 
and  by  the  existence  in  the  neighbourhood  of  such 
a  large  body  of  water  as  the  Victoria  Nyanza. 
The  mean  maximum  temperature  is  80°  F.,  the 
mean  minimum  62°  F.  There  is  little  variation 
throughout  the  year.  Breezes  are  almost  con- 
tinuous during  the  day,  but  the  air  is  usually  calm 
at  night.  The  relative  humidity  is  high.  The 


country  is  not  subject  to  violent  wind  storms, 
although  a  fairly  high  wind  often  precedes  rain  at 
the  commencement  of  the  web  season.  The  rain- 
fall over  all  the  country  is  extraordinarily  local. 
The  annual  fall  over  large  areas  is  much  the  same, 
but  the  daily  and  monthly  falls  differ  for  almost 
every  square  mile.  Occasional  abnormal  falls  of 
rain  occur,  particularly  at  the  advent  of  the  rainy 
season,  but,  as  the  figures  given  in  this  chapter 
show,  the  rainfall  is  very  well  distributed,  both 
monthly  and  daily.  As  a  rule  a  shower  of  rain 
falls  somewhat  rapidly  and  the  weather  clears  up 
quickly,  although  dull  days  in  the  rainy  seasons 
are  fairly  numerous.  At  Entebbe,  the  only  place 
where  records  of  sunshine  are  kept,  the  average 
daily  amount  of  full  sunshine  through  a  year  was 
in  1911  six  hours.  Hail  storms  occur  at  rare 
intervals — not  more  than  once  in  each  year. 

The  rainfall  for  the  two  provinces,  Buganda 
and  Busoga,  differs  very  considerably  as  far  as 
records  go.  During  1911  records  were  kept  at  six 
stations  in  Buganda,  and  at  three  stations  in 
Busoga  with  the  following  result  :— 

Buganda  ...  Mean  fall     47.59  ins.      Wet  days,  122 
Busoga     ...      „  40.22    „  „         „       93 


These  figures  show  a  decided  advantage  in 
favour  of  Buganda,  not  only  in  the  amount 
of  rain,  but  in  its  distribution.  In  some 
parts  of  the  province,  notably  in  Kyagwe,  which 
is  the  favourite  planting  district,  the  figures  are 
even  better.  At  Kivuvu  during  1911  the  rainfall 
was  51*34  ins.  spread  over  165  days.  A  glance  at 
the  table  (pages  8  and  9)  will  show  how  even  the 
distribution  was. 

The  year  1911,  whose  figures  we  have  taken  as 
being  the  most  reliable,  was  a  dry  one  throughout 
the  Protectorate.  At  Entebbe,  where  records 
have  been  properly  kept  over  a  long  period,  the 
average  for  the  last  twelve  years  is  57' 78  ins. 
This,  we  consider,  is  about  the  average  annual 
rainfall  for  all  the  territory  near  the  Lake.  There 
are  two  rainy  seasons  each  year.  These  have  no 
definite  dates  of  starting  or  ending.  In  some 
years  there  is  no  dry  period  between  the  two,  so 
that  they  form  one  prolonged  season  of  rain. 
Rarely  does  a  month  pass,  even  in  the  dry  season, 
without  some  rain. 

The  first  rainy  season  may  be  expected  to  com- 
mence about  the  middle  of  March,  and  continue 
until  the  end  of  June.  As  to  the  time  of  com- 



MORO  C  C  O  >    A  L  G  E  R I A 

/  Ironic  of  Career  / 

French  Sphere  of  Influence       ': 

SAHARA         OR       }G  R 

_    Aaavad.  | 71 

•-Jnmwt  •  Ka-war 

.---'  'Air  orAsben          'Bibna 





mencement  and  duration,  this  is  the  more  reliable 
season  of  the  two.  July,  August,  and  September 
are  more  or  less  dry.  Rains  commence  again 
in  October,  and  continue  until  mid-December. 
From  this  until  the  middle  of  March  is  the  driest 
season  of  the  year.  As  we  have  remarked,  how- 
ever, heavy  rains  may  fall  in  what  are  termed  the 
dry  seasons.  For  instance,  at  Kivuvu  this  year  i 
rainfall  of  over  6  inches  was  recorded  in  February. 
The  figures  of  rainfall  given,  together  with  the 
fact  of  Uganda's  great  elevation  above  the  sea- 
level,  may  lead  those  who  have  experience  of  our 
crops  only  in  other  lands,  to  believe  that  Eubber 
and  Cocoa  cannot  grow  in  this  country  at  all. 
These  crops  indeed  would  probably  not  do  well  at 
the  same  elevation  in  Ceylon  or  Malaya,  but  it 
should  be  remembered  that  Uganda  is  very  much 
nearer  the  Equator  than  either  of  those  countries. 
As  regards  moisture,  we  have  splendid  advantages 
in  the  presence  of  huge  lakes  to  supply  moisture  to 
the  air,  and  in  a  soil  exceedingly  deep  and  good, 
and  rich  in  humus.  Further  there  is  the  very  even 
distribution  of  our  rainfall.  Heavy  dews  too  fall 
every  night  almost  throughout  the  year. 

That  the  temperature  and  rainfall  are  sufficient 



for  our  needs  is  amply  justified  by  the  actual 
results  recorded  in  the  pages  of  this  book,  results 
which  have  all  been  achieved  within  a  short  period 
of  time. 

The  table  below  gives  the  figures  of  mean 
monthly  temperatures  and  rainfall  for  a  year  at 
four  stations  in  the  planting  districts  :— 

Temperature  and  Rainfall 













Means  and 





























1  42 
















































1  34 




1  93 






































Temperature  and  Rainfall  1911  (continued) 













Means  and 

















1  45 




2  29 








1  32 








9  60 








5  69 




7  71 
























5  15 








3  27 




1  89 








5  68 
















1  42 








50  17 


Analyses  of  Soil. — A  typical  sample  of  soil  was 
taken  from  each  of  the  three  principal  planting 
centres,  Kyagwe,  Busoga,  and  Buddu,  and  an 
exhaustive  analysis  made  by  Mr.  Frederick  Kaye, 
A.R.C.Sc.  His  figures  are  given  below  :— 


Name  of  Sample 

Kivuvu  Kyagwe 



Colour  and  character 
of  soil. 

Red    soil    of 
good  texture, 
very  free 
from  stones. 

Dark  red  soil 
of  fine  tex- 
ture, almost 
entirely  free 
from  stones, 

Darkish  grey 
soil,  contains 
a  fair  quan- 
tity of  stones 
and  coarse 



Analyses  of  Soil  (continued) 

Mechanical  Composition. 

1                   2 


1'er  cent.       1'er  cent. 

Per  cent. 

Very  fine  soil  passing  120  mesh 

4  0     j         40              80 

Fine  soil  passing             80      ,, 

02     i         34              0'4 

Fine  soil  passing             60 

20  0     !        35  5             15  0 

Medium  soil  passing      20 

364             51'6            324 

Coarse  sand,  etc.,  ,,         10 

220     !          5'2             192 

Coarse  sand  and  small 

stones  passing               5 

116                '2            140 

Small  stones 


'I             110 


1000           1000 

Chemical  Composition. 

Moisture     ... 



1  640 

Organic  matter  and  combined  water 


9  190 

7  960 

Oxide  of  iron 



4  280 

Oxide  of  alumina    ... 

16  160 


9  150 



0  100 


Magnesia    ... 



ti  ace 


0  133 

0  170 

0  039 

Phosphoric  Acid 








Sulphuric  Acid 




Chlorine     ... 




Sand  and  Silicates  ... 




Containing  Nitrogen 


0  136     1   00086 

„            equal  to  Ammonia 


0  165 









Citric  soluble  Potash 




Citric  soluble  Phosphoric  Acid 


0-0161        00140 

Citric  solub  e  Nitrogen 


0-OOS8        0-0050 

„      equal  to  Ammonia 


0-0119        00060 

The  mechanical  composition  of  the  soils  is 
excellent,  particularly  in  the  case  of  Busoga, 
where  coarse  sand  and  stones  are  practically  non- 

The  chemical  analyses  show  a  high  degree  of 


fertility.  The  soils  of  Kyagwe  and  Busoga  are 
neutral  in  acidity,  whilst  that  of  Buddu  is  slightly 
acid.  This  is  to  be  expected  owing  to  its  paucity 
of  lime. 

The  chief  elements  of  fertility,  iron,  lime, 
magnesia,  potash,  phosphoric  acid  and  nitrogen 
are  present  in  sufficient  quantities,  except  in  the 
case  of  Buddu  soil,  where  lime  and  magnesia  are 
deficient.  In  the  case  of  Busoga  soil  the  propor- 
tion of  magnesia  is  excessive,  while  that  of  lime 
is  less  than  might  be  desired. 

Both  Busoga  and  Buddu  soils,  therefore,  would 
be  materially  improved  by  the  addition  of  lime. 
The  soil  of  Busoga  is  particularly  rich  in  nitrogen. 
More  important,  however,  than  the  amount  of  the 
elements  present  in  a  soil  is  the  condition  in  which 
they  occur  and  the  quantities  immediately  avail- 
able as  plant  food.  Mr.  Kaye's  Report  is  specific 
on  these  points.  His  figures  have  been  obtained 
by  treating  the  minerals  with  a  certain  solu- 
tion of  citric  acid.  The  quantity  of  a  mineral 
which  becomes  soluble  in  this  solution  is  considered 
to  be  the  quantity  which  is  in  such  a  condition  as 
to  be  readily  soluble  in  the  sap  of  the  root-cells  of 
the  plant,  and  therefore  immediately  available  as 
plant  food. 



History  of  Products  in  Uganda 

Dates  of  Introduction,  Origin,  Figures 
of  Growth 

Rubber. — The  Eubber  culture  was  first  intro- 
duced into  Uganda  in  1901,  when  a  single  tree 
was  received  from  Kew.  This  tree  was  planted 
on  the  Lake  shore  in  the  Botanic  Gardens  at 
Entebbe.  The  tree  in  1904  was  21  feet  in  height, 
having  made  7  feet  of  growth  each  year.  The 
growth  of  Para  rubber  was  said  at  that  time 
(Dawe's  Report  Scientific  and  Forestry,  1904)  to 
afford  promise  of  becoming  an  important  industry. 

Early  in  1904  the  Scientific  Department  im- 
ported from  Ceylon  1,000  seeds,  from  which  about 
300  plants  were  obtained.  These  were  in  due  time 
planted  out  in  the  gardens  at  Entebbe,  where  the 
trees  are  still  to  be  seen.  It  is  from  these  trees, 
which  at  the  end  of  1911  were  7  years  old,  that  we 
are  now  able  to  arrive  at  some  conclusions  as  to 

Para  Rubber  4  years  old,     Botanic  Gardens,   Entebbe 


growth  and  yield.  Unfortunately  the  first  tree 
introduced  was  blown  down  in  1910,  so  that  its 
record  of  growth  and  yield,  which  might  have 
extended  our  knowledge  three  years  further,  is  of 
no  service. 

From  reports  published  by  the  Botanical  and 
Forestry  Department,  we  are  able  to  obtain  the 
following  figures  relative  to  the  trees  just  referred 

Date  sown           early  1904 


Girth  at  3  ft. 

Measured                „     1906 


5  inches 

„     1907 

22  „ 

8       „ 

„     1908 

25  „ 

121     „ 

„     1309 

33  „ 

151     „ 

„  Average 

of  whole  field       „     1912 



These  figures  show  that  the  tappable  size,  i.e.y 
16  inches  girth  at  3  feet  from  the  ground,  is 
reached  in  five  years  from  the  time  of  sowing  ia 
Uganda.  This  is  further  borne  out  by  an  ex- 
amination of  the  results  obtained  in  fairly  exten- 
sive plantations  on  the  Kivuvu  estate;  and  results 
given  in  a  later  chapter  prove  that  tapping  at  five 
years  is  quite  a  success  commercially,  and  in  no 
way  injures  the  trees  if  properly  carried  out. 

Other  introductions  of  seed  from  Ceylon  and 


Malaya  have  since  been  made  by  individual 

Cocoa. — The  first  plantings  of  Cocoa  were  made 
in  1901  in  Entebbe  Botanic  Gardens,  the  young 
plants  in  this  instance  also  having  been  brought 
from  Kew.  We  read*  that  they  were  planted, 
half  of  them  in  heavily  shaded  forest,  and  half  in 
a  more  open  situation.  The  latter  were  found  to 
thrive  much  better  than  the  former.  The  general 
result  is  said  to  have  been  very  satisfactory. 

In  the  report  of  the  Scientific  Department  for 
1905  we  learn  that  during  the  previous  year  the 
Cocoa  crop  made  very  little  progress ;  but  a  year 
later  the  report  of  the  same  Department  told  of 
immense  improvement  in  the  condition  of  the 
trees,  which  improvement  it  attributed  to 
systematic  pruning.  From  that  time  onwards 
the  crop  improved  yearly,  until  now  its  success 
in  Uganda  is  assured.  Experience  has  shown  that 
great  care  is  required  in  the  early  years  of  the  tree, 
but  given  such  care,  especially  a  proper  amount  of 
attention  to  the  matter  of  pruning,  Cocoa  may  be 
planted  with  a  reasonable  certainty  of  proving 

•  Dawe'a  Report,  Scientific  and  Forestry,  Uganda,  19^4. 

Para  Rubber  4  years  old.      Kivuvu 

Para  Rubber  4  years  old.      Kivuvu 


The  Entebbe  Cocoa,  planted  in  1901,  bore  a  crop 
in  1906,  that  is  at  five  years  old.  Plantations  at 
Kivuvu  on  a  more  extensive  scale  have  had  a 
similarly  satisfactory  result.  The  whole  of  the 
Cocoa  in  Uganda  has  come  from  the  Entebbe  trees 
and  their  progeny. 

Coffee. — Two  varieties  of  Coffea  arabica  are 
grown  in  the  country,  namely,  '  Nyassa  "  and 

The  "Nyassa"  variety  was  introduced  from 
Nyassaland  to  Kampala  about  1900  by  the  late 
Mr.  A.  Whyte,  at  that  time  head  of  the  Scientific 
Department  in  Uganda.  There  has  been  no 
further  introduction  of  "Nyassa"  seed,  and  all 
the  coffee  of  this  kind  in  Uganda  is  from  the 
original  Kampala  stock.  The  "Bourbon"  variety 
was  brought  in  a  few  years  later  by  the  French 
missionaries,  probably  from  East  Africa,  where 
these  missionaries  had  grown  it  for  many  years. 

Uganda  itself  had  more  than  one  indigenous 
species  of  Coffee;  and  the  new  kinds  quickly 
showed  that  they  had  found  congenial  conditions. 
Both  varieties  grow  very  rapidly,  and  produce  a 
first  small  crop  in  two-and-a-half  years  from  the 
time  of  sowing.  The  trees  may  be  said  to  have 


arrived  at  maturity  in  three  years,  when  they  pro- 
duce a  full  crop.  There  are  in  the  forests  several 
kinds  of  Coffee,  or  closely  allied  plants,  whilst  one 
species,  probably  robusta,  has  long  been  in  cultiva- 
tion amongst  the  natives. 

Cocoa  2  years  old  in   Banana  shade.       Kivuvu 



Yields  and  Results 

AGE  OF  COMING  INTO  BEARING. — The  time  the 
trees  take  to  reach  the  productive  stage  depends 
on  many  circumstances  :  the  health  of  the  seedling, 
the  care  bestowed  on  it,  the  method  of  planting, 
the  soil,  the  seasons,  and  the  skill  with  which 
the  plant  is  attended  to,  are  all  factors  which  affect 
the  rapidity  of  growth.  Most  of  these  factors  are 
under  the  complete  control  of  the  planter,  and  it 
behoves  him  to  see  that  the  plants  have  every 
opportunity  of  developing  rapidly.  With  all  the 
crops  we  have  been  considering  the  productive 
stage  is  determined  by  condition  of  growth  rather 
than  by  age ;  in  other  words,  when  the  trees  reach 
a  certain  size  they  become  productive,  irrespective 
of  the  time  they  have  taken  to  reach  that  size.  Bad 
seasons — by  which  is  generally  meant  in  the 
tropics,  dry  seasons — are,  of  course,  evils  beyond 
man's  power  to  avert,  but  even  here  much  can  be 

(D  243)  C 


done,  by  good  cultivation,  to  mitigate  the  effects  of 
drought.  Another  disadvantage  the  planter  of 
the  past  has  suffered  under,  has  been  the  scarcity 
of  seeds  and  seedlings  of  Para  and  Cocoa  in  the 
country.  Introductions  of  seeds  of  these  have 
been  made  from  Ceylon  and  the  West  Indies  at 
great  expense;  and  in  many  cases  there  has  been 
heavy  loss  through  the  failure  of  these  seeds  to 
germinate.  The  result  was  that  we  have  been 
obliged  to  plant  and  treasure  weak  seedlings  that 
we  would  have  been  glad  to  be  in  a  position  to 
discard.  The  effects  of  this  are  visible  in  the 
great  irregularity  of  growth  in  the  early  planta- 
tions, clearly  demonstrating  how  important  it  is 
to  start  with  only  the  strongest  and  most  healthy 
seedlings.  One  may  see  in  a  field  two  plants  of 
the  same  age  showing  differences  of  growth  which 
would  seem  to  indicate  that  they  differed  in  age  by 
as  much  as  two  years.  Fortunately  for  the  present 
planter,  however,  this  difficulty  is  at  an  end.  Seeds 
are  now  obtainable  locally  in  sufficient  quantities, 
and  at  such  prices,  as  to  allow  of  the  proper  selec- 
tion of  plants,  and  the  rejection  of  any  but  the 

Para. — The  adoption  of  improved  methods  of 

Coffee  2J  years  old  growing  between   Para. 


tapping  the  trees,  combined  with  more  efficient 
tools  for  the  purpose,  has  resulted  in  earlier  tap- 
ping being  practised  than  was  thought  possible  a 
few  years  ago.  It  is  found  that  trees  with  a  girth 
of  16  inches  at  3  feet  from  the  ground  are  capable 
of  giving  remunerative  returns,  by  light  tapping 
which  causes  no  injury,  and  does  not  retard 
growth.  This  stage  is  reached  in  five  years  in 
Uganda.  A  fairly  large  number  of  trees  of  this 
age  were  tapped  at  Kivuvu  last  year.  The 
appearance  they  presented  after  several  months' 
tapping,  and  the  rate  at  which  new  bark  was 
being  formed,  proved  that  no  injury  had  been 
inflicted  by  the  operation. 

Cocoa. — Our  Cocoa  produces  its  first  perfect 
pods  in  the  fifth  year  after  sowing.  The  pods  are 
few  in  number  and  often  small.  It  can  hardly  be 
said  that  bearing  commences  until  the  trees  are 
five  years  old.  From  that  time  forth  the  crops 
should  be  remunerative. 

Coffee. — This  tree  yields  its  first  crop  in  two- 
and-a-half  years  after  sowing.  This,  which  is 
called  the  "  maiden  "  crop,  is  usually  about  half 
the  amount  of  a  full  crop.  Its  next  crop,  the  first 
full  one,  is  produced  in  three  years.  In  Ceylon  the 


Coffee  tree  commences  to  bear  when  five  years  old. 

SEASONS  OF  CROP. — The  crop  season  naturally 
depends  on  the  rains;  it  may  be  early  or  late 
according  to  the  time  at  which  these  fall. 

Para. — This  tree  may  be  tapped  soon  after  the 
commencement  of  the  March  rains,  and  the  tap- 
ping continued  up  to  the  end  of  December,  with  a 
possible  break  of  a  week  or  two  in  July,  should 
that  season  prove  very  dry.  The  tapping  should 
cease  at  the  end  of  December.  We  thus  get  from 
eight  to  nine  tapping  months  in  the  year;  and  if 
the  work  is  carefully  done,  due  economy  of  the 
bark  being  practised,  the  trees  may  be  tapped  for 
the  whole  of  this  period  without  injury. 

Cocoa. — The  flowering  season  starts  in  February 
and  continues  almost  throughout  the  year.  The 
setting  of  the  fruits  is,  however,  more  seasonal,  for 
the  picking  season  extends  only  from  August  to 
December.  From  the  fertilisation  of  the  flower  to 
the  ripening  of  the  pod  the  period  is  from  five  to 
six  months,  so  that  fertilisation  takes  place  only 
in  the  period  from  March  to  July.  A  considerable 
number  of  young  pods  wither  and  fall  off  after 
having  swollen  to  one-and-a-half  inches  in  length. 
This,  however,  need  cause  no  alarm ;  it  is  probably 





due  to  the  inability  of  the  tree  to  perfect  all  the 
pods  it  bears  :  a  portion  of  the  work  had  to  be 
shirked  that  the  remainder  might  be  well  done. 

Coffee. — In  Uganda  a  Coffee  plantation  yields 
two  main  crops  each  year.  There  are,  however, 
intermediate  flowerings,  so  that  on  an  estate  some 
picking  is  in  progress  every  month  from  February 
to  November.  The  largest  flowering  takes  place 
in  February,  and  the  resultant  crop  commences  to 
ripen  in  September.  The  second  flowering  takes 
place  in  August,  and  the  crop  commences  to  ripen 
in  March.  The  period  between  flowering  and 
ripening  is  about  eight  months.  It  will  be  noticed 
that  in  both  seasons  the  flowering  takes  place  just 
before  the  ripening  of  the  previous  crop,  and  just 
before  the  rainy  season. 

The  trees  at  the  time  of  flowering  produce 
blossoms  on  all  the  mature  growth,  and  therefore 
the  amount  of  each  crop  depends  upon  the  amount 
of  growth  made  by  the  tree  since  the  previous 
flowering.  The  heavier  the  crop  carried  by  a  tree 
in  any  season  the  less  will  be  its  growth,  and  the 
smaller  its  crop  the  following  season;  but  in  the 
third  season  the  crop  will  again  be  large.  There 
is  thus  one  big  crop  and  one  small  one  each  year. 


The  flowers  will  remain  in  the  bud  stage  for  a 
considerable  time  if  no  rain  occurs  to  cause  them 
to  expand.  The  berries  too  will  not  ripen  until 
rain  comes.  It  will  be  seen  that  in  this  way  a  crop 
may  be  hastened  or  retarded  to  a  very  large  extent 
by  the  weather.  In  practice  we  find  that  this  is  so 
to  such  an  extent  as  to  render  it  impossible  to 
predict  in  what  month  the  crop  will  be  harvested. 
It  frequently  happens  that  on  two  estates  situated 
only  a  few  miles  from  each  other  crops  may  vary  in 
time  of  ripening  by  as  much  as  two  months. 

YIELDS. — Our  records  of  yields  of  Para  and 
Cocoa  are,  it  is  to  be  regretted,  rather  frag- 
mentary ;  but  this  is  only  to  be  expected,  consider- 
ing the  very  short  time  the  trees  have  been  in 
cultivation  in  the  country.  Records  of  yields  will 
now  rapidly  accumulate,  but  meanwhile  it  may  be 
useful  to  set  down  all  we  have  at  present  obtained. 
The  records  that  have  been  secured  make  very 
promising  reading,  and  augur  well  for  future 
success.  With  Coffee  we  have  well  passed  the 
pioneer  stage,  and  we  can  give  reliable  figures  of 
yields  obtained  in  the  field  on  a  very  considerable 

Para. — The  first  tapping  experiment  in  Uganda 

Cocoa,       A  crop  at  5  years,   unshaded.        Kivuvu 


was  commenced  on  November  14th,  1908,  at 
Entebbe,  when  a  seven-year-old  and  a  four-year- 
old  tree  were  operated  on.  Tapping  was  con- 
tinued over  a  period  of  59  days.  The  yields 
obtained  were,  in  dry  rubber,  4*7  ozs.  from  the 
seven-year-old  tree,  and  4'3  ozs.  from  the  four- 
year-old  tree.  It  was  estimated  from  the  above 
yields  that  1  Ib.  of  dry  rubber,  per  tree,  per  annum, 
could  be  expected.  It  should  be  explained  that 
the  seven-year-old  tree  was  the  original  tree  intro- 
duced from  Kew,  whereas  the  other  was  from  a 
home-grown  seedling.  Further  experiments  were 
made  on  four-year-old  trees,  which,  for  44  tap- 
pings over  a  period  of  90  days,  yielded  4J  ozs.  of 
dry  rubber  each;  and  in  a  later  experiment  still 
the  same  trees  yielded  5J  ozs.  of  dry  rubber  each 
in  a  period  of  60  days. 

During  1912,  also  at  Entebbe,  164  trees  were 
tapped  41  times  over  a  period  of  three  months. 
The  yield  obtained  was  13  ozs.  of  dry  rubber  per 
tree.  In  the  report  giving  these  figures  the  age  of 
the  trees  is  not  given ;  but  presumably  they  are  the 
trees  which  were  four  years  old  in  1908,  and  their 
age  at  the  time  of  this  tapping  was  eight  years. 
The  methods  of  tapping  were  varied  and  expert 


mental,  but  what  particularly  interests  us  just 
now  is  actual  results  obtained. 

Further  figures,  which  are  more  valuable  as 
arising  from  a  larger  experiment,  were  obtained 
last  year  at  Kivuvu  by  the  writers.  The  tapping 
here  was  carried  out  on  commercial  lines.  On  an 
average  1,800  trees  per  month  were  tapped  for 
four  months.  The  yield  in  dry  rubber  was  5*13 
ozs.  for  that  period.  The  trees  were  five  years  old. 
The  method  of  tapping  was  one  basal  V-cut. 

The  following  table  summarises  these  figures 
and  gives  the  yield  per  annum  calculated  on  the 
supposition  that  the  trees  would  yield  at  the  same 
rate  for  eight  months  in  the  year  :— 

Experiment.        Age  of  Tree.          Area  tapped.          Yield  in  ozs. 
1  4  years  6  ft.  of  stem  18 


4     „ 




5     „ 




8     „ 




5     „ 

18  ins.  of  stem 


It  will  be  noted  that  whilst  6  feet  of  stem  was 
tapped  in  the  Entebbe  experiments,  only  one 
quarter  of  that  area  was  worked  at  Kivuvu.  In 
the  latter  case  the  tapping  was  very  light ;  in  the 




former  it  would  be  considered  by  many  too  severe 
on  such  young  trees.  Further,  it  should  not  be 
forgotten  that  in  the  case  of  the  Entebbe  experi- 
ments only  a  few  trees  were  tapped,  whereas  at 
Kivuvu  the  number  was  1,800.  Figures  obtained 
in  experiments  on  a  small  scale  are  rarely  borne  out 
by  a  more  extended  experience.  This  arises  from 
the  impossibility  of  bestowing  as  close  attention  on 
the  work  in  the  latter  case  as  in  the  former.  The 
general  conclusion,  however,  to  be  drawn  from  the 
figures  is  that  nearly  1  Ib.  of  rubber  may  be 
obtained  from  a  five-year-old  tree,  and  2  Ibs.  from 
an  eight-year-old  tree.  These  results  are  entirely 

Cocoa. — With  Cocoa  we  have  even  fewer  actual 
figures  of  yields  on  record  than  in  the  case  of  Para. 
Trees  have  been  yielding  in  Entebbe  Botanic 
Gardens  for  the  last  six  years,  but  no  records  of 
these  yields  have  been  published.  All  the  crop 
has  gone  for  seed,  for  which  the  demand  is  very 
great.  One  cannot  but  wish  that  some  record  of 
the  number  of  pods  gathered  had  been  kept,  for 
from  such  figures  a  fairly  accurate  estimate  of  the 
crop  could  have  been  made. 

To  convey  an  idea  of  what  a  good  crop  of  Cocoa 


is  considered  to  be  in  Trinidad,  we  give  the  follow- 
ing figures  from  "  Cacao  "  by  Hart  :— 

A  scanty  crop  ...  0.82  Ibs.  per  tree  —       9  pods. 

Average  crop  ...  1.65     „      „      „  =  18     „ 

Good  crop  ...  2.47     „      „     „  =  27     „ 

Superior  crop  ...  3.30     „      „      „  =  36     „ 

The  number  of  pods,  which  we  ourselves  have 
added,  is  calculated  on  the  basis  of  11  pods  to  1  Ib. 
of  dry  Cocoa.  This  is  the  average  figure  for 
Ceylon  and  the  West  Indies. 

We  have,  here  in  Uganda,  frequently  counted 
up  to  100  pods  on  a  tree,  and  36  is  a  common  num- 
ber, so  that  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  our  yields 
will  come  up  to  the  good  yields  in  Trinidad.  We 
have  taken  as  many  as  95  pods  from  a  single  tree 
at  one  picking.  Allowing  for  our  pods  being 
smaller,  this  represents  a  yield  of  dry  Cocoa  con- 
siderably greater  than  what  would  be  termed  a 
superior  crop  in  Trinidad.  Although  we  are  not 
in  a  position  to  give  actual  yields  in  figures,  still 
we  consider  our  experience  justifies  us  in  saying" 
that  a  five-year-old  tree  in  Uganda  may  be  relied 
on  to  give  1  Ib.  of  dry  Cocoa,  with  substantial 
increases  each  year  until  maturity  is  reached. 

Coffee  5  years  old  between  Para.     Nsambya  Mission,   Kampala 


Such  yields  must  be  considered  satisfactory,  and 
they  will  make  Cocoa  plantations  as  remunerative 
in  our  country  as  they  have  proved  elsewhere. 

Coffee. — In  1905  a  Coffee  plantation  in  the 
Botanic  Gardens  at  Entebbe  produced  its  first  two 
crops.  One  ripened  in  May  and  the  other  in 
October.  The  yield  of  Coffee  in  parchment  for  the 
year  was  2  Ibs.  per  tree. 

At  Kivuvu  during  1912  39,940  trees  were 
cropped.  These  produced  73,134  Ibs.  of  parch- 
ment Coffee.  Of  the  trees,  26,818  gave  a  full  crop, 
averaging  about  2J  Ibs.  per  tree,  and  13,122  gave 
the  "  maiden,"  or  half  crop,  which  averaged  about 
f  Ib.  per  tree.  Eesults  averaged  over  such  a  large 
number  of  trees  are  conclusive  and  may  therefore 
be  safely  taken  as  the  basis  for  estimates  for  a 
plantation  of  any  size.  The  figures  confirmed 
similar  ones  obtained  during  the  previous  year  on 
a  smaller  area.  They  indicate  a  yield  of  2^  Ibs. 
Coffee  in  parchment,  which  will  give  exactly  2  Ibs. 
of  cleaned,  saleable  Coffee.  In  the  palmy  days  of 
Coffee  in  Ceylon  we  read  of  a  yield  of  1  Ib.  per  tree 
being  considered  good.  Our  yields,  therefore,  are 
calculated  to  make  us  sanguine  as  to  the  prospects 
of  the  Coffee  growing  industry  in  Uganda. 


PRICES  OBTAINED. — Coffee. — On  page  33  we 
give  a  table  showing  prices  received  for  Kivuvu 
Coffee  in  the  London  market  over  a  period  of  one 
year.  The  variation  in  prices  of  the  different 
grades  depends  on  the  relations  of  supply  to 
demand.  The  cleaners  in  London  have  a  know- 
ledge of  the  demand  of  the  day,  and  are  able  to 
grade  accordingly.  In  Uganda  we  cannot  do  this, 
but  must  always  grade  to  standard  sizes.  This  is, 
to  our  mind,  the  strongest  argument  which  has 
been  brought  forward  in  favour  of  London  clean- 
ing. The  difference  in  price  between  London  and 
Uganda  cleaned,  it  will  be  noted,  is  not  great.  It 
no  more  than  covers  the  extra  cost  of  shipping 
parchment  and  of  cleaning  in  London. 

The  high  value  placed  by  the  buyers  on  artifi- 
cially-dried Coffee  is  particularly  gratifying. 
There  were  not  wanting  in  Uganda  the  usual 
prophecies  of  disaster  following  this  innovation. 
Machine-drying,  however,  had  to  come  if  we  were 
to  grow  large  quantities  of  Coffee,  and  the  fact 
that  Coffee  so  dried  is  considered  not  only  equal, 
but  superior,  to  that  which  has  been  sun-dried,  is 
very  much  in  our  favour.  We  believe  the  prices 
we  record  will  be  considered  entirely  satisfactory. 


Uganda  Coffee  is  now  known  in  London.  It  is 
classed  as  a  high-grade  Coffee,  and  doubtless  when 
larger  and  more  regular  shipments  are  received,  it 
will  be  even  more  in  demand.  It  is  sincerely  to  be 
hoped  that  every  planter  will  endeavour  to  keep 
up  the  reputation  of  our  produce,  and  that 
pressure  will  be  brought  to  bear  on  native  growers 
to  prevent  them  from  injuring  it  in  any  way. 

Para. — No  sales  of  Rubber  on  a  commercial 
scale  have  yet  taken  place,  so  that  we  are  entirely 
dependent  on  valuations  for  our  money  figures 
relating  to  this  commodity.  The  results  of  the 
valuation  of  a  sample  from  Uganda  are  given  in 
the  report  of  the  Botanical,  Forestry  and  Scientific 
Department,  1912.  This  examination  was  made 
by  the  Imperial  Institute.  It  reads  : — 

Number  of  Mark — No.   1  Para  Crepe. 
Weight  of  Sample— If  Ibs. 

Description. — Clean  brown  rubber  in  the  form  of  thick 
crepe  or  corrugated  sheet ;  dry,  well-prepared,  and  having  a 
slight  smoky  odour.  The  rubber  was  soft  and  weak,  com- 
paring very  unfavourably  in  strength  with  average  plantation 

Results  of  Examination. — Loss  on  washing  (moisture  and 
impurities),  *06  per  cent. 


Composition  of  dry-washed  rubber  :— 

Caoutchouc              ...            ...    per  cent.  94'0 

Resin           ...            ...            ...          „  2'7 

Proteids      „  2'9 

Ash              „  0-4 

Commercial  Valuation. — About  4s.  8d.  per  Ib.  in  London, 
Tvith  fine,  hard  Para  at  4s.  4£d.  per  Ib.,  and  " medium"  to 
palish  plantation  crepe  at  4s.  9d.  to  5s.  O^d.  per  Ib. 

Remarks. — This  rubber  is  very  satisfactory  in  composition, 
being  quite  equal  in  this  respect  to  plantation  Para  rubber 
from  the  East,  but  it  is  deficient  in  strength.  This  defect  is 
probably  due  to  the  rubber  having  been  obtained  from  young 
trees,  and  there  is  little  doubt  that  the  product  furnished  by 
the  trees  as  they  become  older  will  show  a  great  improve- 
ment in  physical  properties.  The  rubber  will  then  be  of 
greater  value. 

The  weakness  of  Eubber  from  young  trees  is  a 
question  which  continually  crops  up  in  connection 
with  plantation  Rubber.  It  is  only  reasonable  to 
expect  that  the  strength  of  the  Eubber  is  affected 
by  the  age  of  the  tree  producing  it.  The  defect  is 
one  which  only  time  can  remedy.  Meanwhile  we 
can  regard  with  satisfaction  the  fact  that  our 
Rubber  can  be  made  of  such  quality  as  to  reach  a 
value  almost  equal  to  that  of  the  Rubber  from  the 

Cocoa. — Here  again  there  are  no  actual  sales  to 
record.  As  explained  elsewhere,  all  our  Cocoa  to 


date  has  been  in  demand  for  seed  purposes.  A 
sample  of  a  few  pounds  was  prepared  at  Kivuvu 
recently,  and  forwarded  to  London  for  examina- 
tion. The  report  reads  :— 

We  have  received  from  the  Manager  in  Uganda  two 
samples  of  Cocoa,  and  beg  to  hand  you  herewith  report  on 
same,  and  valuations. 

The  larger  grade  we  will,  for  convenience,  refer  to  as 
sample  "A"  and  the  smaller  as  sample  "B." 

Sample  "A"  represents  a  fairly  bold,  bright,  pale  red- 
dish cocoa.  The  fracture  is  good,  but  rather  too  dark.  Light 
and  pale-breaking  descriptions  fetch  the  best  prices.  Com- 
pared with  prices  ruling  for  Ceylon  and  Java  sorts,  it  is 
worth  75s.  to  77s.  per  cwt. 

Sample  "  B "  represents  a  small  and  lean  cocoa  of  the 
same  appearance  as  above,  and  is  worth  about  56s.  to  58s. 
per  cwt. 

If  "A"  and  "B"  grades  were  mixed  together,  the  value 
would  be  about  65s.  per  cwt. 

The  cocoa  is  very  good  in  appearance,  and  has  been  well 
prepared  and  cured,  but  it  appears  to  have  been  too  violently 
dried,  which  may  account  for  the  black  marks  on  some  of  the 
beans,  also  the  shrivelling  of  the  shell.  Probably  the  number 
of  small  beans  are  due  to  immaturity  of  the  trees. 

To  get  the  best  results,  the  cocoa  should,  we  think,  be 
graded  into  three  sizes.  The  first  size  to  consist  of  bright 
and  pale  and  boldest,  free  from  defective  and  discoloured 
beans.  The  second  size  of  medium,  and  to  be  as  even  as 
possible  as  regards  colour  and  size.  The  third  size  should  in- 
clude the  lean  and  small.  Broken  cocoa  should  be  kept 
separate  ;  also  the  quite  black  beans. 


Great  care  should  be  taken  in  the  drying,  the  heat  should 
not  be  too  great,  and  the  cocoa  should  be  allowed  to  dry 
slowly.  In  any  case,  the  lean  and  badly  discoloured  beans 
should  be  picked  out. 

Signed  for  Crichton  and  Co., 

It  will  be  gathered  from  this  report  that  the 
sample  was  by  no  means  a  picked  one.  It  repre- 
sented, in  fact,  every  bean  the  pods  contained.  It 
should  also  be  recorded  that  the  pods  were  taken 
at  the  end  of  the  crop  season,  when  they  are 
usually  in  size  below  the  average. 

The  report  indicates  defects  of  preparation 
which  will  naturally  disappear  when  we  become 
more  experienced  in  the  art  of  curing  and  drying. 
Then,  with  proper  grading,  we  can  expect 
remunerative  prices  for  our  Cocoa. 



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(D  243) 



Probable  Life  of  Tree,  and  how  to 
prolong  it 

IN  the  case  of  plantations  such  as  we  are  consider- 
ing, which  take  several  years  to  bring  to  the  bear- 
ing stage,  the  number  of  years  that  the  tree  will 
continue  to  bear  remunerative  crops  is  an  all- 
important  consideration.  The  treatment  accorded 
the  tree  and  the  crop  it  is  allowed  to  bear  must  be 
regulated  in  such  a  way  that  the  best  results  for 
the  period  of  the  tree's  life  is  obtained.  Whether 
in  all  cases  it  is  possible  or  advisable  to  endeavour 
to  extend  the  life  of  the  tree  by  expensive  treat- 
ment, such  as  pruning,  is  a  matter  for  each  indi- 
vidual planter  to  decide  for  himself. 

As  regards  the  plants  we  have  been  considering, 
it  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  unless  the  requisite 
degree  of  good  growth  is  maintained  year  by  year, 
the  tree  is  suffering  in  some  way,  and  its  life  is 
being  shortened.  This  can  happen  through  bad 
cultivation.  It  can  also  happen  through  over- 


cropping.  With  Para  and  Cocoa  cropping  can  be 
easily  controlled,  but  with  Coffee  it  is  rather 

Para. — The  cropping  of  Para  is  the  extraction 
of  latex  from  the  tree,  and  necessitates  wounding 
the  bark.  Tapping  must,  therefore,  be  carried 
on  only  to  such  an  extent  that  it  does  not  inter- 
fere with  the  normal  growth  and  development  of 
the  tree.  A  system  of  light  tapping  which  can  be 
practised  on  young  trees  has  been  discussed  in 
another  chapter,  but  it  may  be  stated  here  that  the 
effect  of  tapping  should  be  very  closely  watched. 
Care  must  always  be  taken  not  to  tap  too  deeply 
lest  the  cambium  layer  of  the  tree  be  injured,  and 
also  to  secure  that  the  removal  of  bark  by  paring 
is  not  too  rapid. 

When  the  trees  are  bare  of  leaves — a  stage 
known  as  wintering — and  until  the  new  leaves  are 
well  grown,  tapping  should  cease.  This  winter- 
ing of  the  trees  corresponds  to  the  fall  of  the  leaf 
in  temperate  climates ;  and  the  few  days  it  is  bare, 
is  the  only  period  of  rest  the  Para  tree  indulges  in. 
With  our  young  plantations  resting  is  very 
irregular — some  trees  rest  in  one  month,  and  some 
in  another— but  as  the  trees  get  older  this  will 


alter,  and  the  whole  plantation  will  be  found  to 
pass  through  the  resting  stage  at  the  same  time. 

Any  effect  of  over-tapping  will  be  first  evident 
in  the  condition  of  the  leaves  and  the  growth  of  the 
tree,  and  it  should  be  constantly  watched  for,  so 
that  at  the  slightest  sign  of  unhealthy  leaf  or 
impaired  growth  the  tapping  may  be  at  once 

In  Ceylon  and  Malaya  Para  trees  which  have 
been  in  cultivation  for  over  30  years  still  exist  and 
give  large  yields  of  Eubber.  True  they  have  not 
been  tapped  continuously  during  this  period,  but 
from  experience  gained  during  the  last  10  years, 
it  is  generally  agreed  that  the  modern  methods  of 
tapping  do  not  in  any  way  injure  the  trees  or 
retard  or  weaken  their  growth.  Indeed,  when  it 
is  seen  that  trees  can  develop  from  the  young  stage 
to  maturity  with  continuous  tapping,  there  seems 
little  reason  to  fear  any  serious  shortening  of  life 
from  the  process.  In  its  native  forests  the  tree  is 
a  long  lived  one,  and  there  is  every  reason  to  expect 
a  long  life  for  it  in  plantations. 

Cocoa.— Owing  to  the  habit  which  the  Cocoa 
tree  possesses  of  casting  superfluous  pods  in  a 
young  stage,  there  seems  little  danger  of  over- 


cropping  taking  place,  except  on  poor  soil.  Young 
trees  commence  to  flower  at  three  years  old,  but 
pods  do  not  form  until  about  the  fifth  year.  From 
that  time,  until  about  the  tenth  year,  a  large  num- 
ber of  the  pods  shrivel,  and  soon  after  fertilisation 
they  die.  In  view  of  this  habit  the  flowering  of 
the  trees  may  be  allowed,  but  if  pods  form  and 
develop  too  early  they  should  be  removed.  It  is 
not  wise  to  rub  off  the  flowers  of  even  young  Cocoa 
trees,  as  they  always  occur  in  indefinite  bunches, 
and  an  injury  to  the  point  of  the  bunch  would 
result.  A  good  head  of  foliage  with  large  leaves 
should  be  aimed  at,  and  no  tree  should  be  allowed 
to  bear  a  crop  unless  it  possesses  these.  The 
quantity  of  fruit  it  can  ripen  without  impairing 
its  health  depends  upon  the  amount  of  foliage 
it  carries.  Cocoa  is  a  very  long-lived  tree  and  has 
been  cultivated  in  the  West  Indies  for  a  sufficient 
time  to  prove  its  life  as  a  remunerative  crop  to  be 
over  a  century.  Sir  Daniel  Morris  writing  in 
1882  says  :- 

In  their  sixth  and  ninth  years  the  Cocoa  trees  should  be 
in  fair  bearing,  but  they  seldom  reach  their  prime  before 
their  twelfth  or  fifteenth  year.  After  this  period,  where  the 
trees  have  been  carefully  established  and  well  cultivated,  a 
Cocoa  estate  is  a  comparatively  permanent  investment,  and 


it  may  be  expected  to  continue  in  bearing  and  yield  remune- 
rative returns  for  some  fifty,  eighty,  or  a  hundred  years.  In 
fact,  if  old  and  exhausted  trees  are  regularly  and  systemati- 
cally replaced  or  "  supplied, "'there  is  practically  no  limit  to 
the  duration  of  a  Cocoa  estate. — Extract  from  "  Cacao,"  by 

Coffee. — This  tree  comes  under  a  rather  dif- 
ferent category  to  the  other  two.  Of  neither  Para 
nor  Cocoa  does  the  planter  restrict  the  natural 
extension  of  growth  to  any  considerable  extent; 
indeed  he  rarely  makes  an  effort  to  restrict  it.  It 
is  in  the  nature  of  the  Coffee  tree  to  have  only  one 
main  stem  which  produces  branches  regularly 
from  the  base  of  each  leaf  as  the  tree  grows  up- 
wards, the  top  branches  being  always  the  youngest. 
As  the  tree  lengthens  and  branches  higher  up,  the 
lower  branches  fall  off,  the  head  keeping  always 
about  the  same  size.  A  growth  of  this  nature  is 
a  very  inconvenient  one  for  the  planter,  and  he 
resorts  to  topping  the  tree  at  6  feet  to  keep  the 
crop  within  reach  of  the  pickers.  The  Coffee 
tree  bears  on  young  mature  wood,  and  never  bears 
a  second  time  over  the  same  area.  The  portion  of 
the  branch  which  fruits  loses  all  its  leaves  before 
ripening  the  crop,  consequently  it  is  necessary  for 
the  tree  to  make  an  entirely  new  set  of  growths 
each  year  of  equal  strength  and  vigour  if  the  crop 


is  to  be  maintained.  This  is  the  problem  con- 
fronting the  planter  who  is  desirous  of  making  his 
Coffee  plantation  a  permanent  one.  Nature  solves 
it  by  extension  of  the  axis  of  the  tree  with  new 
branches,  and  discarding  the  old  worn  out  ones. 
The  planter  endeavours  to  accomplish  the  same 
result  while  preventing  any  extension  of  axis,  by 
compelling  new  branches  to  spring  from  the  old 
ones,  using  year  after  year  the  same  area  of  axis 
which  nature  uses  only  once.  Such  a  departure 
from  the  natural  growth  can,  of  course,  only  be 
maintained  artificially  and  by  constant  inter- 
ference with  the  growth  of  the  tree. 

The  tree  bears  the  first  crop  on  the  primary 
branches  for  a  considerable  distance  along  them. 
The  next  crop  has  then  to  be  borne  on  the  exten- 
sion of  the  primary  and  on  secondary  branches. 
By  the  time  the  primary  branch  has  borne  its 
second  crop  it  is  unduly  long,  and  weak  in  growth, 
and  it  bears  very  little  more.  Its  place  is  then 
taken  by  one  or  more  secondaries,  which  in  turn 
are  displaced  as  the  bearing  branches  by  tertiaries. 

The  trees  will  generally  throw  out  more 
secondary  and  tertiary  growths  than  are  required 
to  replace  the  primaries,  and  if  some  are  removed 


it  results  in  the  more  perfect  growth  of  the 
remainder.  The  growths  retained  should  always 
be  those  originating  nearest  the  stem  of  the  tree, 
as  this  brings  the  bearing  wood  back  again  near 
the  stem.  By  such  a  systematic  method  of  prun- 
ing with  manuring  of  the  soil  when  it  becomes 
exhausted,  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  life  of  the 
Coffee  tree  could  be  extended  indefinitely.  The 
planter  has,  however,  to  consider  whether  it  is 
possible  or  remunerative  to  give  all  this  attention 
to  the  trees. 

Here  we  ought  to  remark  that  there  is  a  decided 
difference  in  growth  between  the  two  varieties 
"  Nyassa  "  and  "  Bourbon."  The  latter  branches 
much  more  profusely  than  the  former,  and  a  cer- 
tain amount  of  pruning  is  imperative.  With 
"  Nyassa,"  on  the  other  hand,  our  experience  has 
been  that  the  vigour  of  growth  is  maintained,  and 
the  maximum  crops  are  secured,  without  any 
pruning,  up  to  the  eighth  year  of  the  tree.  After 
this  age,  however,  growth  becomes  weaker,  and  the 
trees  show  every  sign  of  old  age. 

We  have  also  found  pruning  a  very  expensive 
operation.  Once  started,  it  must  be  continued,  as 
the  removal  of  a  few  superfluous  branches  seems 


to  result  in  the  awakening  of  all  the  dormant  buds 
in  the  tree,  causing  a  denser  growth  than  ever. 
The  vast  amount  of  labour  pruning  requires 
renders  it  impracticable  where  a  large  area  is  in 
cultivation,  for  this  work  will  be  found  to  absorb 
more  labour  than  the  weeding  and  picking  opera- 
tions. There  is  also  the  fact  to  be  considered  that 
the  pruners  must  be  skilled  men.  This  will  prove 
an  enormous  difficulty  with  our  labour,  which  is 
unskilled,  and  casual. 

All  things  considered,  we  believe  it  will  pay  best 
not  to  prune  the  Coffee,  excepting,  of  course, 
"  Bourbon,"  which,  as  we  have  said,  must  be 
pruned.  In  dealing  with  "  Nyassa  "  it  appears 
best  to  cultivate  the  crop  well,  and  having  got  out 
of  it  as  much  as  possible,  to  be  prepared  to  uproot 
it  after  it  becomes  unremunerative,  which 
generally  occurs  from  about  the  eighth  to  the 
twelfth  year  according  to  the  soil.  Land  is  plenti- 
ful in  Uganda,  and  by  planting  up  other  areas 
each  year  the  output  can  easily  be  maintained. 
Young  trees  will  be  found  more  certain  in  crop  and 
less  likely  to  attacks  from  pests,  than  old  trees 
artificially  maintained.  If,  in  the  meantime, 
Para  has  been  interplanted,  as  we  have  recom- 


mended  elsewhere,  when  the  Coffee  is  ready  to  come 
out,  the  land  will  be  fully  occupied  by  rubber  trees. 

An  interesting  experiment  could  be  made  by 
cutting  down  old  worn-out  Coffee  close  to  the 
ground,  and  allowing  a  new  stem  to  grow  up.  In 
our  new  land  it  is  not  exhaustion  of  the  soil 
which  is  entirely  responsible  for  the  falling  off  in 
crop,  but  merely  that  the  framework  of  the  tree  is 
worn  out.  Proof  of  this  can  be  obtained  by  allow- 
ing a  worn-out  tree  to  extend  its  axis  a  few  feet. 
It  will  be  found  to  produce  a  luxuriant  head  of 
newr  branches,  equal  in  vigour  to  those  it  produced 
in  its  first  years  of  growth,  and  as  fruitful. 
Possibly  cutting  down  the  trees  would  give  them 
another  equal  period  of  f ruitfulness,  and  save  the 
cost  of  planting  elsewhere. 

There  is  a  common  idea  that  the  early  fruiting 
of  our  Coffee  should  be  prevented  by  picking  off  the 
first  flowers.  We  have  not  found  any  harm  result 
from  allowing  these  to  develop.  Often  the  pick- 
ing off  of  flowers  only  induces  the  trees  to  flower 
again  the  following  month.  A  second  lot  of 
flowers  does  not  come  on  the  same  part  of  the 
branches  from  which  the  others  were  removed. 
Hence  all  crop  from  these  is  lost. 



Choice  of  Land  for  Plantations 

Choosing  Land. — The  land  best  suited  for  all 
three  crops  is  gently  undulating  land.  The  soil' 
should  be  good  and  deep.  Steep  hillsides  should 
be  avoided,  as  should  also  swampy  and  stony  land. 
The  water  supply  must  be  abundant  and  per- 
manent. A  great  deal  of  water  is  required  for 
nursery  purposes,  and  later  on  in  the  preparation 
of  the  products,  and  it  is  necessary  to  make  certain 
that  there  will  be  no  shortage.  In  many  parts 
of  the  country  the  open  land  is  broken  up  by  belts 
and  patches  of  forest,  and  trees  skirt  the  water 
courses.  It  is  a  great  advantage  to  have  these 
natural  wind-breaks,  and  any  felling  of  timber 
therein  should  be  cautiously  carried  out.  The 
entire  clearing  of  any  of  these  small  forests  will 
often  result  in  the  water  supply  of  the  estate  being 
seriously  diminished. 

To  all  the  crops  strong  winds  are  detrimental, 


and  particularly  so  to  Cocoa.  It  is  essential  that 
naturally  sheltered  sites  be  selected  for  this  crop  : 
the  glades  between  patches  of  forest  are  ideal  for 
the  purpose.  For  Rubber  and  Coffee  artificial 
wind-breaks  can  be  formed  where  a  natural  pro- 
tection does  not  exist. 

Another  point  which  should  be  considered  when 
choosing  land  is  its  healthiness ;  and  a  hill  on  the 
estate,  removed  from  swamps,  and  suitable  for 
residential  sites  for  an  European  staff  is  a 
practical  necessity.  Also,  it  must  be  remembered 
that  native  labour  is  essential,  so  that  unless  there 
is  a  certainty  that  native  workers  can  be  brought 
from  a  distance  one  should  not  think  of  beginning 
a  plantation  in  a  sparsely  populated  district. 

Transport  Facilities. — Probably  this  is  the  most 
vital  point  of  all  to  be  considered  in  deciding 
where  the  plantation  shall  be.  There  are  un- 
doubtedly large  areas  of  excellent  land,  in  districts 
where  labour  is  most  abundant,  but  which  are  too  far 
from  rail  or  steamer  to  be  of  any  present  use  to  the 
planter.  In  the  running  of  an  estate  a  very  large 
amount  of  transport  is  necessary.  Machinery  and 
stores  have  to  be  brought  in,  and  produce  carried 
out.  Estates  within  a  reasonable  distance  of  the 


railway  or  steamers  have  a  very  great  advantage, 
for  although  roads  exist  to  many  more  remote 
parts  of  the  country,  they  are  totally  unfit  for  the 
heavy  traffic  of  the  planter.  Wheeled  transport 
is,  of  course,  necessary,  but  draught  animals  in 
Uganda  being  weak  and  subject  to  many  diseases, 
the  only  feasible  plan  of  shifting  large  quantities 
of  produce  is  by  the  use  of  mechanical  transport. 
Probably  in  time  light  railways  and  good  roads 
will  be  made  to  connect  up  the  large  fertile  areas 
of  the  country,  but  until  this  is  done  the  planter 
will  find  transport  one  of  his  greatest  difficulties,, 
should  he  be  situated  at  any  distance  inland. 

Indications  of  Natural  Vegetation. — As  a 
general  rule  a  very  accurate  idea  of  the  character 
of  a  soil,  as  well  as  of  the  rainfall  of  a  district, 
may  be  gathered  by  a  careful  examination  of  the 
wild  growth  it  supports.  In  a  tropical  country 
the  vegetation  will  be  naturally  luxuriant  unless 
there  is  some  factor  such  as  poor  soil  or  insufficient 
rainfall  operating  against  it.  Where  the  natural 
vegetation  is  scanty  the  planter  should  endeavour 
to  discover  the  cause,  for  it  is  almost  certain  that 
the  crops  he  plants  will  also  be  affected  by  this 


The  existence  of  a  high  growth  of  "  Elephant 
Grass  "  is  a  certain  indication  of  a  deep  rich  soil, 
well  drained.  The  prevalence  of  patches  and 
strips  of  forest  denotes  a  well-watered  district 
with  a  good  rainfall.  The  districts  of  short 
grass,  interspersed  with  brush  and  small  trees, 
should  be  regarded  with  suspicion.  Here,  either 
the  soil  is  for  a  part  of  the  year  sour  and  swampy, 
or  the  rainfall  is  deficient.  Land  supporting 
short,  fine  grass  only  will  generally  be  found  to 
consist  of  a  shallow  soil  overlying  rock. 

In  some  cases  the  cause  of  a  scanty  vegetation 
can  be  traced  to  recent  native  cultivation. 
Abandoned  native  gardens  are  often  full  of  couch 
grass  and  other  pernicious  weeds,  and  entail  great 
expense  in  cleaning. 

The  best  land  of  all  is  undoubtedly  virgin  forest, 
but  this  being  difficult  to  obtain,  and  expensive  to 
clear,  need  not  be  considered.  The  next  best  is 
that  growing  "  Elephant  Grass.''  Provided  one 
is  assured  that  the  rainfall  of  the  district  is  satis- 
factory, one  can  safely  choose  this  kind  of  land 
for  the  cultivation  of  Rubber,  Coffee,  and  Cocoa. 

In  another  chapter  chemical  and  mechanical 
analyses  of  typical  Uganda  soils  are  given.  Valu- 


able  as  a  chemical  examination  is,  there  is  no  doubt 
that,  as  a  test  of  suitability,  experiments  with  the 
plant  itself  are  very  much  better.  The  prospective 
planter  should  endeavour  to  see  all  he  can  of 
similar  crops  growing  in  his  immediate  neighbour- 




Propagation. — With  all  three  plants  propaga- 
tion by  seed  is  the  quickest  and  easiest  method. 
Cuttings  of  Para  and  Coffee  may  be  rooted,  but  the 
process  is  slow  and  uncertain  at  the  best,  and 
scarcely  practicable  at  all  on  a  large  scale.  Coffee 
seeds  germinate  in  about  50  days,  Para  in  21  days, 
and  Cocoa  in  14  days.  As  Cocoa  and  Para  seeds 
quickly  lose  their  vitality,  they  should  be  sown  as 
soon  as  obtained.  Coffee  seed  can  safely  be  kept 
several  months  if  dried  naturally  and  slowly.  Half 
dry  coffee  seed  will  germinate  more  quickly  than 
either  quite  new  or  quite  dry  seed.  A  pound  of 
dry  coffee  seeds  contains  2,500  seeds. 

The  grafting  method  is  receiving  great  attention 
from  Cocoa  growers  in  the  West  Indies  and  other 
countries,  and  is  found  to  be  a  sure  way  of  pro- 
pagating an  absolutely  pure  stock.  Cocoa  cross- 
fertilises  very  readily,  therefore  a  stock  propa- 


gated  by  seed  cannot  be  kept  true.  The  Cocoa  at 
present  in  Uganda  is  of  a  very  mixed  nature,  but 
this  is  not  altogether  a  disadvantage,  as  in  the 
present  early  stage  it  is  impossible  to  say  which 
kind  may  prove  most  profitable.  Having  so  many 
varieties  we  shall  have  an  opportunity  of  picking 
out  the  kinds  best  suited  to  our  climate.  Until  we 
have  reached  this  stage  of  discrimination,  any 
attempt  at  selection  of  seed  is  not  likely  to  be 
useful.  Already  we  can  see  that  certain  varieties 
come  into  bearing  much  earlier  than  others,  but 
then  we  cannot  be  certain  that  those  which  bear 
best  in  the  very  young  stage  will  bear  the  largest 
crop  eventually. 

Beds. — The  site  for  the  beds  should  be  carefully 
chosen.  It  should  be  as  near  as  possible  to  a  good 
water  supply,  but  a  low  badly-drained  situation 
should  be  avoided.  The  soil  should  be  of  the  best. 
The  proximity  of  the  site  to  the  field  to  be  planted 
should  also  be  considered,  with  a  view  to  saving 
labour  in  carrying  the  plants.  The  site  of  the 
nursery  need  not  be  chosen  with  a  view  to  per- 
manence ;  a  new  one  may  be  made  for  each  field  to 
be  planted  if  that  is  found  necessary. 

The  beds  should  run  down  the  slope,  and  in  the 

(D  241)  E 


direction  of  the  water.  To  facilitate  attention 
they  ought  not  to  exceed  five  feet  in  width.  It  is, 
however,  not  advisable  to  have  them  much 
narrower  than  this,  or  water  will  drain  away  too 
rapidly  from  them.  Each  bed  should  be  separated 
from  the  next  by  a  trench  about  9  inches  deep,  the 
soil  dug  out  in  forming  this  being  used  to  raise 
the  bed.  The  trench  serves  the  purpose  of  a  drain 
to  the  bed,  and  also  as  a  path.  For  the  latter 
purpose  a  width  of  at  least  eighteen  inches  will  be 

The  beds  when  formed  should  be  forked  over  to 
a  depth  of  1  foot,  in  order  to  reduce  the  soil  to  a 
fine  state.  All  stones  and  roots  must  be  removed. 
The  beds  are  now  ready  to  receive  the  seeds,  and 
the  next  step  is  to  erect  a  frame  to  carry  the 
shading.  It  will  be  found  advisable  to  make  this 
of  good  stout  posts  which  will  last  for  several 
seasons  if  required.  The  actual  shading  material, 
consisting  of  palm  leaves  or  grass,  can  be  put  on 
or  removed  as  required,  without  interference  with 
the  frame-work.  We  prefer  each  bed  to  be  shaded 
independently,  rather  than  have  one  frame  erected 
to  cover  many  beds.  There  are  several  reasons  for 
this.  Under  a  large  roof  the  plants  receive  less  air 


and  light  than  when  the  roof  is  interrupted  at 
each  bed.  The  covering  too  can  be  placed  much 
lower  when  it  is  not  necessary — as  it  will  not  be 
when  each  bed  has  its  separate  shading — to  go 
about  underneath  it;  and  the  danger  of  its  being 
blown  down  on  the  plants  is  thus  avoided.  Fur- 
ther, the  separate  system  allows  the  sun  to  reach 
the  paths  between  the  beds,  and  so  keeps  them  dry 
and  clean  for  use. 

A  different  treatment  in  the  nursery  is  necessary 
for  the  three  plants. 

Cocoa. — We  have  found  it  advisable  to  sow  the 
seeds  fairly  close  together,  in  beds  one  inch  deep, 
and  transplant  them  into  pots  or  baskets  as  soon 
as  they  germinate.  The  seeds  may  indeed  be  sown 
in  pots — one  in  each  pot — in  the  first  instance,  but 
the  method  of  sowing  first  in  beds  is  more 
advantageous,  as  in  the  subsequent  potting  any 
weak  seedlings  can  be  at  once  discarded.  The  least 
possible  check  results  to  the  plant  when  the  potting 
is  done  as  soon  as  germination  takes  place  and 
before  any  leaves  are  produced.  The  root  of  the 
young  plant  is  then  short,  and  if  it  is  carefully 
lifted  with  the  aid  of  a  trowel  it  will  not  be 
damaged  in  the  slightest.  The  pot  should  be 


previously  prepared  by  half -filling  it  with  soil, 
firmly  pressed  down,  and  then  loosely  filling  it  to 
the  top.  A  hole  larger  and  deeper  than  the  root 
being  then  made  in  the  middle,  the  plant  is  placed 
in  it,  and  the  soil  well  pressed  down  all  round. 
The  soil  should  not  come  up  to  within  less  than 
an  inch  of  the  rim  of  the  pot,  as  this  space  is 
required  for  water.  The  points  to  be  carefully 
insisted  on  are  that  the  root  of  the  plant  is  straight 
down  in  the  pot,  and  that  the  soil  is  in  contact 
with  it,  that  the  plant  is  buried  only  to  the  same 
depth  as  that  at  which  it  was  growing  in  the  bed, 
and  that  the  whole  of  the  soil  in  the  pot  is 
uniformly  firm. 

The  pots  are  then  placed  standing  close  together 
in  rows  across  the  bed.  Each  row  should  consist 
of  10  plants,  and  a  small  space  had  better  be  left 
between  each  10  rows  to  facilitate  the  checking  of 
the  number  of  plants.  The  plants  remain  in  these 
pots  until  ready  for  planting,  which  may  be  at  any 
time  after  they  have  reached  the  age  of  four 
months.  They  must  be  well  shaded  all  through, 
and  potting  operations  must  also  be  carried  on 
under  shade. 

In  watering  these  plants,  or  in  fact  any  plants 


in  pots,  the  rose  should  be  removed  from  the  water- 
ing pot  so  that  the  waterer  may  be  in  a  position 
to  pass  over  any  plants  not  requiring  water  and  to 
fill  the  pots  of  those  requiring  it.  The  plant 
requires  either  a  good  soaking  of  water  or  none  at 
all,  and  if  this  be  borne  in  mind  in  doing  the  work, 
the  plants  will  be  found  to  grow  very  much  better 
than  if  watering  were  done  regularly  and  indis- 
criminately over  the  whole  batch,  without  regard 
to  the  wants  of  individual  plants. 

Para  Rubber. — This  plant  may,  we  think,  be 
best  treated  up  to  the  potting  stage  in  a  similar 
way  to  that  outlined  for  Cocoa.  As  soon  as  it  is 
established  in  the  pot  it  may  be  given  less  and  less 
shade,  until  finally  it  is  allowed  the  full  benefit  of 
the  sun.  In  the  long  dry  season,  however,  a  slight 
shade  may  be  given  to  lessen  the  need  of  water. 
The  plants  grown  under  this  treatment  may  be 
planted  out  in  the  field  at  6  months  old. 

Some  planters  leave  the  young  Para  in  the  seed 
beds  until  it  reaches  a  large  size.  They  then  cut 
it  back  or  stump  it  before  planting.  This  method 
saves  a  good  deal  of  trouble,  and  proves  very  suc- 
cessful in  a  good  rainy  season.  It  is  the  best  plan, 
therefore,  to  adopt,  if  regular  rains  can  be 


depended  on,  after  planting  until  the  stumps  have 
made  root.  By  it  the  plants  can  be  kept  in  the 
nurseries  until  two  years  old ;  and  although  they 
have  to  be  cut  back  to  1  foot  in  height,  and  the 
tap  root  also  cut  off,  the  growth  they  afterwards 
make  is  very  robust  and  rapid.  Our  experience, 
however,  is  very  much  in  favour  of  the  pot  system 
for  Uganda,  as  owing  to  the  irregularity  of  our 
rains,  establishment  in  the  field  is  much  more 
certain.  The  only  drawback  is  that  the  pots  will 
not  support  the  plants  for  a  longer  period  than 
about  six  months  without  renewing. 

If  it  is  intended  to  allow  the  Para  to  grow  on  in 
the  seed  beds  the  seeds  should  be  grown  not  less 
than  one  foot  apart. 

Coffee. — The  seeds  should  be  sown  half-an-inch 
deep  and  be  shaded  and  kept  moist  until  germina- 
tion has  taken  place.  They  can  be  sown  6  inches 
apart  in  the  beds  where  they  are  to  grow  until 
large  enough  for  planting  in  the  field.  A  practice 
we  recommend,  however,  where  large  numbers  have 
to  be  raised,  is  to  sow  the  seeds  very  thickly  in  a 
bed,  and,  when  germinated,  but  before  the  coty- 
ledons unfold,  to  prick  them  out  into  other  beds  at 
the  required  distance.  By  this  method  the  water- 


ing  of  many  beds  during  the  two  months  of  ger- 
mination is  saved,  and  if  the  young  seedlings  are 
carefully  handled  they  show  no  sign  of  a  check  in 

When  the  young  plants  are  established  the  less 
shade  given  the  better.  Shading  is  not  at  all 
necessary  for  Coffee,  but  can  be  resorted  to  in  the 
dry  season  to  save  watering.  All  shading  should 
be  removed  a  few  weeks  before  the  plants  are 
removed  into  the  field,  in  order  that  they  may  be 
hardened  to  the  sun.  Coffee  plants  are  large 
enough  to  plant  out  at  any  time  after  the  age  of 
eight  months  old.  Potting  is  not  necessary  in 
their  case  as  in  that  of  Cocoa  and  Para. 

By  sowing  during  the  rainy  season  we  have 
frequently  raised  large  numbers  of  plants  without 
the  use  of  shade  or  water  at  any  stage.  Such 
plants  are  found  to  stand  transplanting  to  the  field 
very  much  better  than  those  which  have  been 
shaded  and  regularly  watered. 

The  nursery  should  in  every  case  be  large  enough 
to  afford  supplies  considerably  in  advance  of  what 
is  expected  to  be  necessary  for  the  purposes  of  the 
new  plantation.  Some  new  plants  will  be  required 
in  every  field,  and  should  therefore  be  available. 


It  is  a  great  advantage  to  be  able  to  discard  weak 
or  inferior  plants.  At  least  50  per  cent,  then  over 
the  estimated  requirement  should  be  grown  in  the 
nursery.  Any  plants  remaining  over  after  the 
planting  should  receive  attention  that  they  may 
keep  pace  in  growth  with  those  in  the  field.  In 
this  way  a  supply  to  meet  all  contingencies  is 
secured.  It  is  advantageous  after  planting  a 
coffee  field  to  put  a  few  thousands  of  similarly 
sized  plants  in  pots.  These  can  then  be  used  later 
on  for  vacancies,  and  can  safely  be  planted  even  at 
times  when  there  is  but  little  rain. 

The  regularity  of  the  growth  greatly  improves 
a  field's  appearance,  as  well  as  adding  to  its  yield, 
and  it  is  in  the  nursery,  as  we  have  pointed  out, 
that  this  must  be  provided  for. 



Laying  Out  Plantation 

Roads. — The  plan  to  be  adopted  in  laying  out 
the  plantation  must  depend  upon  the  nature  of  the 
land  to  be  dealt  with.  Given  land  fairly  level,  or 
sloping  gently,  the  easiest  plan  is  to  cut  it  up  into 
square  blocks  by  main  and  secondary  roads, 
leaving  each  block  of  a  given  acreage. 

If  this  is  to  be  the  plan,  a  main  road  should  first 
be  made  from  the  site  of  permanent  water — where 
a  factory  can  be  erected — right  up  to  the  farthest 
portion  of  the  estate,  so  as  to  cut  the  whole  field 
into  halves.  This  main  road  should  be  at  least  30 
feet  in  width.  If  the  area  to  be  planted  is  very 
large,  or  of  such  a  shape  that  one  main  road  will 
not  sufficiently  open  it  up,  two  or  more  such  roads 
may  be  made.  It  is  advisable  to  consider  well 
beforehand  the  plan  to  be  adopted,  as  once  the 
roads  are  made  and  the  planting  done,  no  altera- 


tion  can  be  carried  out  without  much  labour  and 
the  destruction  of  many  trees. 

From  the  main  road  other  roads  should  run  at 
right  angles,  and  again  from  these  others  also  at 
right  angles,  so  as  to  cut  up  the  area  into  square 
blocks.  The  secondary  and  other  roads  may  be 
made  narrower  than  the  main  one;  18  feet  will  be 
ample  width.  The  blocks  should  not  be  less  than 
20  or  30  acres  each  in  extent,  or  the  proportion  of 
roads  to  the  planted  area  will  be  excessive. 

It  will  be  obvious  that  if  this  plan  of  laying  out 
the  estate  be  adopted  on  more  or  less  hilly  land, 
many  of  the  roads  will  run  up  and  down,  with 
gradients  inconvenient  for  the  use  of  carts.  As 
most  estates  in  Uganda  are  too  irregular  in  sur- 
face, it  is  necessary  therefore  to  adopt  a  different 
arrangement.  This  is  to  make  roads  wherever 
they  are  required,  and  to  run  them  according  to 
the  contour  of  the  hills. 

In  opening  up  an  estate  in  this  way,  it  is 
necessary  first  of  all  to  decide  on  the  site  for  the 
factory.  All  roads  should  then  run  either  to  this 
point,  or  into  other  roads  which  reach  it,  and  as 
the  factory  site  must  always  be  near  permanent 
water,  and  therefore  near  the  lowest  part  of  the 

Coffee  4  years  old  in  fruit,  growing  between   Para.      Kivuvu 


estate,  it  can  often  be  arranged  that  all  these  roads 
shall  have  a  downward  slope  to  the  factory.  This 
will  be  found  of  great  advantage  when  large 
quantities  of  coffee-berries  are  being  carted  to  the 
factory  for  treatment.  The  drainage  of  the  estate 
will  be  found  much  simpler  under  this  plan  than 
if  straight,  right-angled  roads  are  made,  for  as  the 
roads  will  all  be  running  down  hill  on  an  easy 
gradient,  the  main  drains  can  be  made  alongside 
them,  and  will  rarely  be  crossed  by  other  roads. 

Should  it  be  found,  after  the  roads  have  been 
made,  that  the  blocks  of  land  are  too  large  for  easy 
inspection,  small  paths  can  be  made  to  intersect 
them,  or  lines  of  trees  of  some  other  kind  can  be 
planted.  It  should  be  remembered  that,  except 
for  cartage  purposes,  a  road  will  be  little  used. 
The  trees  will  always  be  in  lines  far  enough  apart 
to  allow  of  one  walking  between,  and  the  coolies 
will  always  be  found  to  do  this  rather  than  go 
round  a  block  to  get  to  the  other  side.  Roads  are 
non-producing  areas  requiring  considerable  labour 
for  their  construction  and  upkeep,  and  it  is  there- 
fore sheer  waste  to  make  more  of  them  than  are 
absolutely  required. 

The  planting  of  avenue  trees  along  every  road 


has  very  little  to  recommend  it.  Certainly  the 
shaded  road  is  pleasant  in  hot  weather,  but  on  the 
other  hand  it  is  because  of  this  shade  that  the 
avenue  tree  is  most  to  be  objected  to.  The  more 
sun  the  road  receives  the  better  will  be  its  condi- 
tion; and  since  in  the  rainy  season  sunless  days 
are  very  frequent,  and  this  is  the  season  when  the 
road  will  be  most  used,  it  will  be  easily  understood 
that  roadside  trees  are  not  an  unmixed  blessing. 
Further,  these  trees  hinder  a  free  inspection  of  the 
fields  from  the  roads. 

Of  course  where  Para  is  planted  the  trees  shade 
the  road  themselves,  but  here  there  is  no  help  for 
it.  Moreover,  the  roads  through  Para  will  not  be 
used  by  carts  to  any  large  extent.  The  objections 
apply  chiefly  to  Coffee  fields,  where,  during  the 
crop,  the  road  traffic  will  be  very  great. 

The  metalling  of  main  roads  is  a  matter  that 
should  not  be  lost  sight  of.  This  work  can,  how- 
ever, be  done  at  any  time. 

Drains. — Drainage  is  not,  as  a  rule,  a  very 
serious  problem  in  Uganda.  The  soil  is  naturally 
open,  and  drains  are  rarely  required  for  the  pur- 
pose of  sweetening  it.  They  are  needed  only  to 
carry  away  the  excess  water  of  heavy  rains,  and  to 


prevent  wash,  or  erosion  of  soil.  Steep  hillsides,, 
however,  need  elaborate  drainage.  The  drains 
should  run  round  the  contour  of  the  hill,  and  be 
given  only  a  very  gentle  fall.  They  should  be  close 
together.  The  object  in  view  is  not  to  take  away 
as  much  water  as  possible  from  the  hill,  but  to 
retain  it  by  retarding  its  downward  flow,  so  that 
the  soil  has  a  longer  time  to  soak  it  up.  Besides 
causing  a  loss  of  water  to  the  plants,  the  inefficient 
drainage  of  steep  lands  results  in  heavy  wash  of 
the  soil,  and  the  consequent  loss  to  the  crop  of  the 
loose  rich  top-soil. 

In  addition  to  the  drains,  catch-pits  are  very 
useful  on  steep  land.  These  should  be  made  in 
places  between  the  drains  where  wash  is  likely. 
They  should  be  about  2  feet  wide,  1  foot  deep,  and 
about  6  feet  long.  Such  pits  will  hold  a  consider- 
able amount  of  water,  none  of  which  can  escape 
except  by  soaking  down  to  the  roots  of  the  crop. 
The  fine  soil  which  they  collect  during  a  heavy  rain 
can  be  removed  at  intervals,  and  thrown  back  on 
the  land  from  which  it  was  washed. 

Another  means  of  staying  wash  is  to  plant 
thickly  a  low-growing  shrub.  Species  of  Crota- 
laria  are  suitable  for  this  purpose.  The  seeds 


should  be  sown  in  drills  at  intervals  across  the 
slope  of  the  hill.  The  plants  can  be  kept  short  by 
pruning.  The  Crotalarias  are  nitrogen-producing 
plants,  and  so  will  rather  enrich  the  soil  than 

Cover  plants  such  as  Ground  Nuts  and  the  Giant 
Bean  (Mucuna  gigantea)  are  also  useful  for  stay- 
ing wash.  The  former  are,  however,  likely  to 
-attract  pigs,  and  the  latter  may  cause  some  trouble 
by  climbing  the  plants.  If  these  plants  are  used 
they  should  be  dug  into  the  land  when  the  seeds 
are  ripe.  In  this  way  re-sowing  may  be  saved. 

On  the  more  level  parts  of  the  estate  it  will  be 
advisable  to  delay  making  drains  until  they  are 
found  necessary  to  prevent  wash.  It  is  very  much 
better  that  all  rain  should  soak  into  the  soil  than 
that  a  part  of  it  should  be  run  off  by  drains.  Some 
soils  will  absorb  very  much  more  water  than 
others;  but  as  a  rule,  unless  the  slope  is  fairly 
steep,  our  soil  in  Uganda  is  sufficiently  open  and 
absorbent  to  readily  take  up  the  water  of  any 
ordinary  shower. 

Portioning  out  the  Estate. — If  all  the  three  pro- 
ducts we  are  considering  are  to  be  planted,  the 


part  of  the  estate  to  be  allotted  to  each  should  be 

The  Cocoa  area  should  first  be  chosen,  as  par- 
ticular regard  must  be  paid  to  shelter  for  this 
crop.  The  lower  slopes,  sheltered  valleys,  and 
forest  glades  should  be  carefully  examined  with 
this  view. 

Para  Rubber  should  not  be  planted  on  exposed 
hills,  as  young  trees  are  very  liable  to  damage  from 
wind,  and  growth  in  wind-swept  places  will  at  the 
best  be  found  very  slow.  The  more  exposed  parts 
can  be  made  suitable  for  Coffee  by  the  establish- 
ment of  wind-breaks. 

The  best  soil,  and  most  easily  cleared  land 
should  be  taken  in  hand  first,  so  that  as  much  land 
as  possible  can  be  got  under  cultivation  in  the  early 



Clearing  and  Planting 

Clearing. — The  clearing  of  "  Elephant  Grass  " 
land  presents  few  difficulties.  The  grass  is  first 
cut  down  close  to  the  ground  and  allowed  to  lie 
until  quite  dry.  It  can  then  be  cleanly  burnt  off. 
The  land  is  then  hoed  up  to  a  depth  of  9  to  12 
inches,  and  all  roots  shaken  free  of  soil  and  laid 
on  the  surface  to  dry.  This  original  digging  if 
well  done  will  practically  eradicate  the  "Elephant 
Grass  "  and  other  natural  growths. 

A  few  planters  use  ploughs  to  break  up  new 
land,  but  as  before  ploughing  all  stumps  of  trees 
must  be  removed  and  ant-hills  levelled,  it  does  not 
greatly  reduce  the  cost  of  the  work.  Where  bush 
or  trees  occur  on  the  land,  these  should  be  cut  down 
at  the  time  of  cutting  the  grass,  and  the  branches 
lopped  off  and  piled  for  drying.  These  piles  may 
have  to  remain  many  weeks  until  dry  enough  to 


burn.  The  stumps  need  not  be  removed,  at  any 
rate  for  a  time.  It  has  been  proved  in  other 
countries  that  the  decaying  stumps  of  trees  are  a 
source  of  disease  to  the  Eubber,  but  as  far  as  is 
known,  no  harmful  effects  result  to  the  Coffee  and 

Lining  and  Holing. — Clearing  being  finished, 
the  lines  for  the  plants  can  be  marked  out,  and 
the  holes  dug.  It  will  be  found  convenient  to 
make  the  lines  as  far  as  possible  at  right  angles 
to  the  road.  This  will  facilitate  inspection  of 
work  and  checking  of  tasks.  Where  the  road  is 
straight  it  can  be  used  as  a  base  in  lining,  but  if 
curved  the  base-line  must  be  back  from  the  road 
sufficiently  far  to  get  a  long  straight  line.  A  line 
exactly  at  right  angles  to  this  will  then  be  chosen 
and  pegged  out  for  holes. 

Subsequent  lines  are  made  parallel  to  the  first, 
and  at  equal  distances  asunder.  In  pegging  the 
line  the  start  sjiould  always  be  made  at  the  base- 
line. The  pegs  will  then  be  always  square  if  the 
distances  are  kept  constant.  If  the  base-line  is 
back  from  the  road,  the  lines  should  then  be  con- 
tinued from  it  right  up  to  the  road. 

We  have  found  a  Chesterfield  linen  tape  the  best 

(D  243) 


for  measuring.  The  natives  quickly  learn  to  read 
it  accurately,  and  it  is  more  easily  used  for 
different  measurements  than  a  chain.  It  does  not 
stretch  or  shrink  as  a  cord  does. 

We  are  not  in  favour,  as  we  have  already  said, 
of  the  practice  of  planting  avenues  of  trees  by  the 
sides  of  all  roads,  but  prefer  that  the  field  should 
continue  right  up  to  the  road.  In  addition  to  the 
other  objections  to  it  which  we  have  mentioned,  we 
may  remark  that  if  rubber  is  used  as  an  avenue 
tree,  as  it  frequently  is,  the  collection  of  the  crop 
from  such  trees  will  be  found  expensive,  and  will 
also  require  a  great  deal  of  supervision. 

We  do  not  favour  triangular  planting,  at  any 
rate  for  Coffee  or  Cocoa,  for,  although  it  allows  of 
a  more  regular  distribution  of  the  trees  over  the 
ground,  it  has  what  we  consider  the  disadvantage 
of  not  leaving  a  wider  space  between  the  lines  in 
one  direction  to  facilitate  collection  of  the  crops. 

The  lining  being  finished,  holing  can  be  at  once 
begun.  It  is  an  advantage  to  have  the  holes  made 
several  months  before  they  are  required ;  to  obviate 
delay  in  the  planting  they  should  all  be  finished 
before  the  season  for  it  arrives.  The  men  should 
be  taught  to  make  the  spot  where  the  peg  is  the 


centre  of  the  hole.  This  can  be  done  by  marking 
the  outline  of  the  hole  before  the  peg  is  removed. 

In  ordinarily  good  soil  a  hole  of  from  12  to  18 
inches  in  diameter  and  depth  is  large  enough  for 
any  of  the  plants,  but  if  the  soil  is  stony  or  gravelly 
the  holes  should  be  made  larger.  The  soil  removed 
from  the  hole  should  be  thrown  over  the  surface, 
not  piled  round  the  hole. 

When  weeding  has  to  be  done  over  a  holed  field, 
care  should  be  taken  not  to  break  up  the  outline 
of  the  hole,  for  that  would  render  regular  planting 
more  difficult.  The  silting  up  of  the  holes  need 
cause  the  planter  no  annoyance  :  the  soil  washed  in 
in  this  way  is  fine  surface  soil,  which  is  the  very 
best  filling  for  the  holes. 

Planting. — The  days  for  this  work  must  be 
carefully  chosen,  and  it  must  be  energetically 
pushed  on  in  suitable  weather.  The  work  ought 
not  to  be  hastily  commenced  as  soon  as  the  first 
rains  begin.  It  is  wise  to  defer  it  till  sufficient 
rain  has  fallen  to  thoroughly  soak  the  soil,  and 
particularly  the  bottoms  of  the  holes.  Showery 
days,  dull  days,  and  mornings  after  rain  should 
be  given  up  to  planting,  and  every  effort  should  be 
made  to  complete  the  work  well  before  the  rainy 


season  is  over.  This  will  give  the  young  plants  a 
chance  of  becoming  established  before  the  next  dry 
season  comes.  It  is  much  less  risky  to  plant  trees 
a  little  too  early  than  to  wait  for  them  to  reach 
the  proper  size,  if  the  latter  course  entails  plant- 
ing near  the  end  of  the  rainy  season. 

If  care  is  taken  in  choosing  suitable  planting 
days,  watering  in  the  field,  or  shading,  need  never 
be  resorted  to,  except  in  the  case  of  Cocoa,  which 
must  be  shaded  with  palm  leaves  or  grass  as  soon 
as  planted. 

The  actual  planting  of  the  trees  should  be  done 
only  by  the  most  experienced  men.  Each  man 
takes  his  own  line  right  through  the  field,  and  the 
headman  in  charge  ought  to  know  the  planter  of 
each  line  so  that  bad  work  can  be  checked.  The 
planter  will  be  preceded  by  men  who  fill  up  the 
holes  for  him.  This  is  done  by  scraping  in  surface 
soil  until  the  hole  is  half  full.  It  should  then  be 
trodden  firmly,  and  the  hole  filled  loosely  with  good 
soil.  Another  gang  of  men  will  be  employed  in 
carrying  plants  from  the  nursery  to  the  planter. 

The  planter  will  need  to  provide  himself  with  a 
trowel  with  which  he  makes  a  hole  in  the  loose 
soil  large  enough  and  deep  enough  to  take  the 


plant.  He  then  takes  a  plant  from  the  carrier  and 
places  it  in  the  hole,  firmly  treading  the  soil 
around  it. 

When  the  soil  is  properly  trodden  down  the 
plant  ought  to  be  at  the  same  depth  in  the  soil  as 
it  was  in  the  nursery  bed  before  removal.  It 
should  be  firmly  fixed  in  its  place,  and  the  soil 
around  it  made  level  and  very  firm.  The  planter 
must  not  turn  up  the  tap-root  in  planting.  He 
cannot  avoid  doing  it,  however,  if  he  makes  the 
hole  too  small  or  too  shallow.  It  is  necessary  to 
have  a  responsible  man  at  the  nursery  to  give  out 
the  plants.  This  man  should  see  that  only  good 
strong  plants  are  taken,  and  that  those  dug  up 
from  beds  are  not  damaged,  or  the  soil  shaken 
from  their  roots  more  than  can  be  avoided.  It  is 
his  duty,  too,  to  see  that  each  man  carries  a  certain 
number  of  plants,  ten  or  twenty  as  the  case  may  be. 
This  will  be  found  a  great  help  in  checking  the 
number  planted  each  day. 

For  carrying  plants  dug  out  of  beds  a  wide  box 
or  basket  is  best.  Only  a  limited  number  of  plants 
should  be  put  in  each,  so  that  the  planter  can  easily 
lift  out  a  plant  with  its  ball  of  earth  without  dis- 
turbing the  remainder.  While  being  carried 


from  the  beds  to  the  field  the  box  should  be  covered 
with  banana  leaves  to  keep  the  sun  and  air  from 
the  roots  of  the  plants. 

The  plants  should  be  removed  from  the  box  only 
by  the  planter,  who  should  take  them  one  at  a  time 
as  he  is  ready  to  plant  them,  the  carrier  keeping 
beside  him  until  his  box  is  empty. 

These  instructions  may  seem  to  the  inexperi- 
enced to  be  unnecessarily  minute,  but  if  they  are 
observed  it  will  be  found  that  the  work  will  go  on 
rapidly  and  smoothly,  and  be  well  done.  A  gang 
of  50  men  working  as  recommended  above  will  put 
down  in  a  day  about  10,000  plants.  The  men  will, 
of  course,  require  very  close  supervision  to  ensure 
that  everything  is  properly  done ;  and  as  the  piece- 
work system  tends  to  put  a  premium  on  hasty 
work,  it  should  be  specially  avoided  by  employers 
in  this  department  of  industry. 

If  a  morning  that  has  been  suitable  for  planting 
operations  should  open  out  later  into  a  dry  sunny 
day,  it  will  be  wise  to  suspend  the  work  until  the 
atmospheric  conditions  are  again  favourable. 

Distances  of  Planting. — There  is  much  dif- 
ference of  opinion  as  to  the  best  spacing  for  the 
various  crops;  and  experience  in  Uganda  is  not 


yet  sufficiently  extended  to  entitle  anyone  to  dog- 
matise on  the  subject.  The  experience  gained  in 
other  countries  can  be  useful  only  as  a  guide  in  the 
conduct  of  our  own  experiments.  The  nature  of 
the  soil  of  the  individual  estate  is  a  factor  which 
may  upset  any  general  rule.  On  a  poor  soil  more 
trees  per  acre  may  be  planted  than  on  a  rich  soil. 
The  following  distances  are,  as  far  as  our 
experience  goes,  the  best  to  work  from  :— 

Para  Rubber  alone                   ...            ...  20/x20/. 

Cocoa                ...            ...            ...            ...  13'xlO'. 

Coffee,   Nyasa  variety               ...            ...  8'x   6'. 

Coffee,   Bourbon  variety           ...            ...  8'x   8'. 

Para  Rubber  int 3rplanted  with  Coffee...  24/x24/. 

This  spacing  will,  we  believe,  allow  the  Coffee 
and  Para  Rubber  to  reach  the  maximum  size  in 
good  soil.  With  Cocoa  it  will  probably  be  found 
necessary  to  cut  out  every  other  tree  after  12  or  15 
years.  This  will  leave  the  trees  finally  13'  *  20', 
which  we  do  not  think  will  be  found  too  great  tu 
distance  eventually,  although  it  would  be  much 
too  great  up  to  the  twelfth  year.  The  planting  of 
the  trees  at  10  feet  will  allow  of  almost  double  the 
crop  being  secured  from  the  area  for  several  years, 
and  with  the  closer  planting,  upkeep  expenses  will 


be  lessened.  The  Cocoa  tree  is  slow  in  growth 
during  its  early  years,  and  as  it  crops  at  five  years 
old  the  intermediate  trees  will  have  given  good 
returns  before  they  need  be  cut  out,  and  the  per- 
manent trees  will  not  be  in  any  way  injured. 

Interplanting . — In  the  case  of  Para  Rubber 
interplanting  with  Coffee  will  be  found  of 
immense  advantage. 

If  Coffee  is  thus  used  as  a  ' '  catch  "  crop,  it  is 
best  to  plant  the  Rubber  24'  x  24',  as  this  will 
allow  of  the  Coffee  being  retained  for  a  longer 
time  without  any  undue  interference  with  the 
Rubber.  The  Rubber  will  be  thus  75  trees  to  the 
acre,  and  the  Coffee  825  per  acre.  The  Coffee 
nearest  the  Rubber  would  have  to  be  cut  out  after 
the  fifth  year,  and  the  whole  removed  after  the 
seventh  year.  The  following  diagram  shows  this 
method  of  planting,  and  the  plants  which  should 
be  first  cut  out. 

®     Para  Tree. 
;+...  +  .  +      .    Coffee. 

+  Coffee  to  first 
!©         +         .         +         ©          +         .         +          ®  cut  out. 

6  ft. 


This  would  reduce  the  Coffee  trees  by  353  per  acre 
and  leave  472  per  acre. 

It  is  of  course  a  fact  that  any  interplanting 
will,  to  a  certain  extent,  interfere  with  and  retard 
the  Eubber,  but  the  planter  will,  we  take  it,  not 
mind  whether  his  profits  are  from  Rubber  or 
Coffee,  as  long  as  he  secures  them ;  and  the  advant- 
age of  an  interplanted  area  over  an  area  not 
interplanted  is  so  immense  as  to  form  an  over- 
whelming argument  in  favour  of  the  interplanting 
system.  It  is  well,  however,  to  bear  in  mind  that 
the  Coffee  must  be  sacrificed  at  the  right  time. 

Fig.  24  shows  Para  interplanted  with  Cocoa. 
Apparently  both  crops  are  doing  well.  There  are, 
however,  more  reasons  than  one  against  this 
practice.  Firstly  the  shade  given  by  the  Para 
tree  cannot  be  controlled  without  damaging  the 
tree.  Secondly,  it  has  been  found  that  canker  will 
attack  both  Cocoa  and  Para,  and  the  separation 
of  the  two  crops  is  thus  advisable. 

Annual  crops,  such  as  Maize,  Beans,  Sim-Sim, 
and  Ground  Nuts  may  be  permitted  between  the 
young  plants  for  the  first  two  years,  but  they 
should  be  sown  hi  rows,  and  not  close  up  to  the 


plants.  Sweet  Potatoes,  Yams,  and  Cassava 
should  not  be  allowed  amongst  any  of  the  crops. 

Provision  of  Shade. — It  is  only  for  Cocoa  that 
shade  is  necessary,  and  how  far  this  may  be  an 
advantage  with  mature  Cocoa  remains  yet  to  be 
proved.  The  Banana  gives  an  ideal  shade  for  the 
early  life  of  the  Cocoa,  but  is  found  unsuitable 
after  the  fifth  year.  It  is  also  useful  as  providing 
large  quantities  of  native  food.  By  the  fifth  year 
some  more  permanent  shade  should  be  provided, 
such  as  Dadaps  (Erythrina)  and  Albizzia,  which 
can  be  easily  controlled.  It  is  still,  as  we  have 
said,  an  open  question  whether  the  provision  of 
any  shade  at  all  is  advisable  in  Uganda,  but  until 
this  has  been  decided  it  is  perhaps  the  safer  course 
to  provide  it.  In  opening  a  new  field  for  Cocoa 
it  is  an  advantage  to  plant  the  Bananas  six  or  nine 
months  before  the  Cocoa. 

Wind-belts. — Amongst  Para  and  Coffee  wind- 
breaks will  be  found  of  the  greatest  use.  The 
extent  and  frequency  of  these  must  depend  upon 
the  force  of  the  prevailing  winds.  In  Para  fields 
they  will  only  be  a  temporary  institution  whilst  the 
trees  are  young.  In  such  a  case  the  Ceara  Rubber 


(Manihot  Glaziovi)  is  a  very  good  tree  to  use, 
owing  to  its  rapid  growth  and  dense  head. 

For  more  permanent  breaks,  other  trees  can  be 
planted,  such  as  Nsambya  (Markhamia  platy- 
calyx),  Lubugo  (Ficus  spp.),  Conifers,  Jak  Fruit 
(Artocarpus  integrifolius),  Mango  (Mangifera 
indica).  The  trees  in  the  wind-breaks  should  be 
planted  closely  together,  and  thinned  out  when 



Weeding  and  Upkeep 

KEEPING  the  land  free  from  weeds  absorbs  the 
largest  amount  of  labour,  and  is  the  most  costly  of 
all  the  operations  in  the  plantation.  It  is  necessary, 
for  the  good  growth  of  our  crops,  that  they 
shall  not  have  to  compete  for  space,  below  ground 
or  above,  with  any  of  the  wild  growths  of  nature. 
Our  plantations  are  at  present  only  small  clear- 
ings in  a  vast  extent  of  jungle,  from  which  seeds 
of  all  kinds  are  blown  in  in  countless  numbers. 
Our  rich  soil  and  well-distributed  rainfall  gives 
these  seeds  every  opportunity  to  germinate  and 
establish  themselves,  and  only  by  constant  labour 
can  they  be  kept  under.  Fortunately,  the  land 
generally  chosen  for  plantations,  ' '  Elephant 
Grass "  land,  contains  practically  no  other 
growths,  and  as  the  "  Elephant  Grass  "  is  easily 
eradicated,  most  plantations  start  in  a  clean  state 
after  clearing  has  been  properly  done.  After  the 




removal  of  the  large  growth,  however,  the  small 
weeds  get  their  chance;  and  in  the  fine  tilth,  every 
seed  dormant  in  the  soil,  and  all  those  blown  in, 
have  a  splendid  medium  in  which  to  grow. 

A  study  of  our  commonest  weeds  will  be  found 
full  of  interest,  and  of  great  value.  The  means  to 
adopt  to  keep  them  in  check  must  depend  upon  the 
nature  of  their  growth  and  their  methods  of 
propagation.  The  system  of  weeding  which  will 
be  most  effective  will  be  that  system  which  most 
interferes  with  growth  and  propagation. 

Types  of  Weeds. — After  the  clearing  of  the 
"  Elephant  Grass,"  a  very  varied  crop  of  weeds 
springs  up,  with  no  very  noticeable  preponderance 
of  any  species.  A  few  months'  cultivation  dis- 
poses altogether  of  many  species,  and  those  which 
persist  year  after  year  are  less  than  a  score  in 
number.  The  following  are  the  twelve  most  com- 
mon kinds  : — 

Botanical  Name.  Native  Name. 

Amarantus  blitum        (Dicot)  "Mbogi." 

Justicia  matammensis  (Dicot)  "Kamukasa." 

Annuals     j  Bidens  pilosa  (Dicot)  "Sere." 

Digitaria  fenestrata      (Monocot)  "Kuku." 

\Eleusine  indica  (Monocot)  "Kasibanti." 


Botanical  Name.  Native  Name. 

Commelina  nudiflora  (Monocot)  "Nanda." 


Commelina  africana     (Monocot)  "Nanda." 



Portulaca  oleracea        (Dicot)         "Sezera." 
.Portulaca  quadrifida    (Dicot)         "Bwanda.1 

(Digitana  mutica  (Monocot)     Lumbugu. 

]_,        .  /,,  ,\       u,yT1         „ 

Grasses  1 Manscus  SP-  (Monocot)      Nku. 

llmperata  arundinacea  (Monocot)    "  lyusanke." 

Of  these  twelve  species,  seven  are  monocoty- 
ledons, and  five  dicotyledons.  The  monocotyledons 
are  our  worst  pests. 

According  to  their  methods  of  propagation,  the 
weeds  may  be  divided  into  three  distinct  classes. 
The  first  class  consists  of  those  which  propagate 
only  by  seeds.  These  may  be  termed  annuals.  In 
this  class  come  Mbogi,  Kamukasa,  Sere,  Kuku  and 
Kasibanti.  It  contains  dicotyledons  and  mono- 

The  second  class  consists  of  those  which,  besides 
propagating  by  seeds,  have  a  fleshy  growth  which 
is  capable  of  spreading  along  the  surface  of  the 
ground,  and  rooting.  Such  weeds  will  re-estab- 
lish themselves  even  after  being  uprooted.  Small 
pieces,  cut  off,  will  quickly  form  new  plants. 


These  may  be  termed  succulents.  In  this  class  are 
included  Nanda,  in  two  species,  and  Bwanda. 
They  are  all  dicotyledons. 

The  third  class  consists  of  those  weeds  which, 
besides  seeding,  propagate  themselves  by  under- 
ground rhizomes  or  stems,  extending  from  the 
parent  plant  in  all  directions,  and  forming  new 
plants.  In  this  class  are  Lumbugu,  Nku,  and 
Lusanke.  They  are  all  monocotyledons  and 
grasses,  and  may  be  termed  couch-grasses, 
although  none  of  them  are  exactly  what  is  known 
by  that  term  in  England. 

Plans  to  be  adopted  to  keep  weeds  in  check. — 
The  weeds  are  all  alike  in  that  they  will  propagate 
by  seed;  so  that  weeding  should  be  at  such  short 
intervals  that  perfection  of  seed  is  impossible. 
The  shortest  period  in  which  seedling  weeds  can 
grow  up  and  ripen  their  seeds  is  about  a  month. 
The  "  Kuku  "  grass  and  "  Sere  "  will  ripen  seeds 
in  this  period,  both  often  flowering  whilst  only  in 
the  seedling  stage.  Weeding  should  therefore  be 
done  at  intervals  of  not  more  than  three  weeks. 

With  the  annuals,  this  is  all  that  has  to  be  con- 
sidered, for  the  weed  once  dug  up  soon  dies,  and  it 
can  be  either  left  on  the  surface  of  the  ground  or 


buried.  The  succulents,  however,  will  not  die  if 
merely  dug  up  and  left  on  the  surface  of  the 
ground.  The  stems  all  have  the  power  of 
rooting  very  quickly,  and  in  a  very  few  days  the 
growth  is  going  on  as  if  no  disturbance  had  taken 
place.  An  easy  and  effective  way  of  destroying 
them  is  to  bury  them  in  the  ground.  For  this 
purpose,  shallow  holes  may  be  dug  by  the  weeders, 
between  the  trees,  and  then  the  weeds  can  be 
trodden  in  and  covered  with  6  inches  of  earth, 
which  will  effectually  smother  them. 

For  the  couch-grasses,  different  methods  again 
must  be  adopted.  Every  part  of  these  is  capable 
of  rooting  and  growing  into  a  perfect  plant,  and 
this  it  can  do  either  on  the  surface  of  the  ground 
or  under  it.  The  only  way  to  destroy  these  weeds 
is  to  burn  them.  They  are  the  worst  of  all  weeds, 
owing  to  their  habit  of  spreading  underground 

Wherever  any  of  the  couch-grasses  occur,  in  new 
land  or  old  plantation,  they  must  be  dug  up,  and 
every  small  portion  removed  from  the  soil.  Of  the 
three,  "  Lumbugu  "  is  by  far  the  worst,  and  too 
much  care  cannot  be  taken  to  prevent  its  spread 
The  weeders  should  be  instructed  to  dig  it  out 


completely  wherever  found,  and  to  remove  it  from 
the  field  to  be  dried  and  burnt.  Such  weeding 
ought  not  to  be  given  out  as  task  work,  or  it  may 
be  carelessly  done.  Constant  supervision  should 
be  exercised  over  the  weeders. 

It  will  be  gathered  from  what  has  been  said 
above,  that  intelligent  weeding  of  a  plantation  is 
necessary  if  it  is  to  be  kept  in  order  at  moderate 
expense,  and  that  it  is  not  an  operation  which 
requires  but  little  supervision  beyond  the  checking 
of  areas.  The  appearance  of  weeds  should  be 
watched  for,  and  they  should,  as  they  appear,  be 
identified  and  dealt  with  effectively.  The  annuals 
are  the  first  to  appear  on  a  new  plantation,  but 
the  others  soon  come  in  small  numbers.  A  few 
months  of  indiscriminate  hoeing,  however,  will 
result  in  the  establishment  of  all  these  persistent 
weeds  in  large  colonies,  which  it  will  take  an 
immense  amount  of  labour  and  money  to  eradicate. 
The  writers  know  of  instances  where  "  Lumbugu  " 
has  cost  so  much  as  £10  per  acre  to  remove  com- 

Where  so  much  discrimination  is  necessary,  if 
good  results  are  to  be  obtained,  mechanical  weeders 
and  cultivators  need  not  be  expected  to  give  satis- 

(D  243)  G 


factory  results  in  the  long  run.  Such  machines  will 
do  good  work,  whilst  the  trees  are  young,  in  keeping 
down  the  annual  weeds ;  but  whilst  they  are  being 
worked,  and  are  cutting  up  all  the  weeds  alike, 
there  is  the  possibility  of  the  couch-grass,  whose 
roots  are  permeating  every  inch  of  the  soil,  being 
overlooked.  Mechanical  cultivators  have  been 
used,  in  some  cases  with  disastrous  results.  In 
other  cases,  the  results  have  satisfied  the  planters, 
but  whether  in  general  the  machine  is  as  effective 
in  clearing  the  ground  of  weeds  as  the  hand  is  a 
question  which  still  remains  to  be  decided.  A 
high  authority  on  the  subject  once  stated  that  the 
work  on  tropical  plantations  might  be  more  cor- 
rectly described  as  "  extended  gardening"  than 
as  "  agriculture."  There  is  no  doubt  of  the  truth 
of  this;  and  the  more  we  apply  the  principles  of 
gardening  to  all  our  operations,  the  greater  our 
success  will  be.  In  all  the  tropical  plantation 
countries  of  the  world,  farm  implements  have  been 
tried,  and  given  up  in  favour  of  hand  cultivation. 
Cover  Plants. — A  few  years  ago,  a  great  deal 
was  heard  of  the  possibilities  of  various  selected 
weeds  as  cover  plants  to  the  soil.  It  was  claimed 
that  these  plants,  which  were  of  the  order 


Leguminosae  (many  species  of  which  have  the 
power  of  collecting  the  free  nitrogen  from  the  air) 
would  by  their  own  growth  so  completely  cover  the 
soil,  that  other  weeds  had  no  chance  to  grow. 
Their  powers  of  absorbing  nitrogen  were  said  to 
prove  a  valuable  aid  to  the  Eubber  among  which 
they  were  planted;  and  altogether  Eubber  so 
grown  was  expected  to  develop  as  rapidly  as  clean- 
weeded  Eubber,  and  at  a  very  small  expense  for 
upkeep.  The  plan  was,  however,  extensively 
tested  in  Malaya,  and  it  was  conclusively  proved 
that  better  growth  resulted  from  absolutely  clean 

The  cover  plants  were  tried  with  Para  only,  but 
there  is  no  doubt  that  with  Coffee  the  failure 
would  have  been  even  more  pronounced.  Nothing 
but  clean  weeding  can  be  practised  with  Coffee. 
A  very  moderate  growth  of  weeds,  even  for  a  few 
weeks  only,  has  a  noticeable  effect  on  the  trees. 
The  leaves  take  on  a  pale  hue,  and  growth  is  much 
restricted.  If  the  trees  are  young,  the  result  can 
be  seen  for  a  year  after  in  the  short  internodes, 
and  small  leaves  of  the  growth  so  affected. 

We  have  seen  a  field  of  Coffee  interplanted  with 
lemon  grass.  The  grass  was  cut  periodically  and 


used  as  a  mulch  to  the  Coffee.  The  effects  of  the 
interplanting  were  well  nigh  disastrous.  The 
Coffee  plants  made  very  poor  growth  and  bore 
little,  whilst  in  the  dry  season  they  became  almost 
leafless.  On  the  lemon  grass  being  uprooted,  the 
Coffee  at  once  began  to  recover,  and  in  the  course 
of  a  few  months  it  entirely  regained  health. 

In  one  instance  we  have  used  cover  plants  to 
some  advantage  amongst  mature  Cocoa  which  was 
too  widely  planted.  After  the  removal  of  the 
banana  shade,  it  was  found  that  a  great  part  of  the 
surface  of  the  soil  was  subject  to  the  direct  rays  of 
the  sun.  This  is  detrimental  to  the  soil,  and  also 
to  the  Cocoa,  which  loves  a  shaded  soil  in  which  to 
spread  its  fine  surface  roots.  The  field  was  sown 
with  the  "  Giant  Bean"  (Mucuna  gigantea), 
which  creeps  over  the  soil,  and  forms  a  thick 
carpet  of  growth;  and  the  Cocoa  appeared  to 
derive  some  benefit  from  it.  There  was  practi- 
cally no  diminution  in  cost  of  upkeep,  as  the 
beans  had  to  be  carefully  weeded,  and  had  also  to 
be  kept  under  control,  to  prevent  them  from 
covering  all  the  soil,  or  climbing  the  trees.  Ground 
nuts  would  serve  the  same  purpose,  but  they  do  not 
last  as  long  in  growth  as  the  bean.  There  must 


be  no  removal  of  the  crop  of  nuts.  These  should 
be  dug  in  to  enrich  the  soil. 

Pruning. — This  is  a  very  important  operation 
on  the  estate,  and  it  must  be  entrusted  only  to 
skilled  men.  The  object  in  pruning  is  to  alter  the 
natural  growth  of  a  tree  to  that  which  the  planter 
considers  more  suitable  to  his  purpose,  and  more 
likely  to  prove  productive.  That  production  can 
be  increased  by  pruning  is  too  well  known  to  need 
argument.  The  bearing  wood  on  a  Cocoa  or  Coffee 
tree  can  be  increased  both  in  quantity  and  vigour 
by  proper  pruning. 

Not  a  great  deal  of  pruning  is  necessary  in  our 
plantations  at  the  present  time.  Para  requires 
very  little  attention.  The  pruning  of  Coffee  is  an 
open  question  which  is  discussed  elsewhere.  Our 
Cocoa  has  not  reached  the  age  when  much  pruning 
is  required,  but  still  very  much  can  be  done  by  way 
of  improving  the  shape  of  young  Cocoa,  with  very 
little  expenditure  of  labour. 

Para. — In  the  early  days  of  Rubber  growing,  the 
topping  of  young  trees  which  had  reached  a  con- 
siderable height  without  branching  was  recom- 
mended. This  was  called  thumb-nail  pruning, 
and  consisted  of  nipping  out  the  terminal  bud  of 


the  growth  to  force  side  buds  into  activity. 
Experience  of  the  effects  of  this  practice  has 
resulted  in  its  utter  condemnation.  Branches  so 
formed  all  spring  from  the  tree  at  the  same  point, 
and  form  such  an  angle  that  they  drop  off  when 
they  attain  to  a  fair  size  and  weight,  often  split- 
ting the  trunk  right  to  the  ground  in  doing  so. 
This  has  occurred  on  our  estates  in  Uganda,  so 
that  we  have  experience  to  convince  us  that  the 
practice  is  not  one  which  ought  to  be  adopted. 

A  small  percentage  of  trees  will  grow  very  high 
before  branching,  and  with  these  there  is  consider- 
able delay  in  putting  on  girth ;  but  eventually  they 
will  form  heads  and  thicken  out,  and  such  branches 
will  be  found  to  withstand  the  storms  in  a  way  that 
forced  branches  will  not  do. 

The  only  pruning  which  should  be  practised  on 
Para  trees  is  the  removal  of  any  branches  that  may 
be  growing  on  the  lower  6  ft.  of  stem.  This 
portion  is  required  as  the  tapping  area,  and  it 
should  be  straight,  clean,  and  unbranched.  Shoots 
should  therefore  be  removed  thence  as  soon  as  they 
appear.  They  can  be  rubbed  off  if  still  soft. 

Cocoa. — The  ideal  Cocoa  tree  should  have,  low 
down,  as  many  branches  as  possible,  but  without 


overcrowding.  The  young  plant  should  form 
three  primary  branches  at  2  ft.  from  the  ground. 
These  should  each  form  three  secondaries  at  4  ft. 
from  the  ground.  Branching  should  again  take 
place  at  6  ft.  from  the  ground.  Where  more  than 
the  required  three  branches  are  produced,  the 
weaker  should  be  removed.  Such  a  tree  will  have 
a  fine  foundation  or  framework  on  which  to  carry 
a  big  head  of  foliage.  Most  of  the  plants  will  be 
found  to  break  naturally  at  about  the  right  place, 
but  occasionally  one  will  run  up  several  feet  with- 
out doing  so.  Thumb-nail  pruning  can  be 
practised  to  force  branching  with  success. 

There  is  a  double  advantage  in  keeping  the 
crown  of  the  Cocoa  tree  low.  Firstly,  as  it  is  the 
thick  branches  of  the  crown  which  bear  the  crop, 
the  cropping  area  is  brought  more  within  reach 
of  the  picker,  and  secondly,  such  trees  withstand 
winds  very  much  better  than  those  which  have  a 
similar  crown  on  a  stem  several  feet  high. 

The  framework  of  the  tree  having  been  formed, 
further  pruning  consists  of  cutting  back  strong 
growths  which  may  spoil  the  balance  of  the  head, 
or  which  are  unduly  vigorous;  the  removal  of 
superfluous  growths  that  the  head  may  not  become 


too  dense;  and  the  cutting  out  of  all  weak  useless 
growth,  particularly  about  the  middle  of  the  tree. 

At  all  times,  Cocoa  is  prone  to  produce  strong 
fleshy  shoots  at  the  base  or  on  the  main  stems. 
These  growths  are  known  as  suckers.  They  should 
be  removed  as  soon  as  seen.  On  a  plantation  of 
considerable  size,  it  will  pay  to  detail  a  man  to 
go  continually  over  the  Cocoa  fields  to  look  for,  and 
remove,  the  suckers. 

Coffee. — The  question  of  the  advisability  of 
pruning  Coffee  for  crop  has  been  discussed  else- 
where, and  an  account  of  the  method  to  be  adopted 
is  there  given.  All  that  need  be  dealt  with  here  is 
the  necessary  pruning  and  stopping  of  the  tree. 

The  tree  must  be  kept  to  one  stem.  Second 
stems  result,  not  from  ordinary  branches,  but  from 
suckers  which  spring  only  from  the  stem  of  the 
tree.  These  should  be  removed  as  soon  as  they  are 
seen.  Topping  should  be  done  when  the  tree  is 
about  5^  ft.  in  height.  All  that  is  necessary  is  to 
pinch  out  the  growing  tip.  The  topping  will 
cause  suckers  to  appear  abundantly  all  up  the  stem 
of  the  tree. 

It  is  advisable  to  have  pruners  always  going 
through  the  fields  removing  suckers.  These  men 


should  be  provided  with  a  stick  5^  ft.  long,  with 
which  to  measure  trees  for  topping. 

We  have  followed  the  practice  of  not  stopping 
the  upward  growth  of  the  tree  altogether  at  5^  ft., 
but  of  allowing  further  top  growth  up  to  6|  ft. 
The  top  is  pinched  out  at  5J  feet.  This  results  in 
two  shoots  from  the  top  node.  One  of  these  is 
removed  at  once;  the  other  is  allowed  to  extend  a 
foot  or  so,  and  is  then  stopped.  We  find  picking 
presents  no  difficulty  at  this  height,  and  the  after- 
growth at  the  top  appears  to  result  in  the  more 
perfect  development  of  the  branches  of  the  upper 
half  of  the  tree.  It  has  also  the  effect  of  prevent- 
ing a  dense  growth  of  branches  at  the  base. 

Manuring. — Probably  no  operation  of  the  plan- 
tation is  more  misunderstood  than  that  of  manur- 
ing. Amongst  amateur  planters,  the  idea  seems 
to  exist  that  a  plant  or  tree  is  capable  of  absorbing 
any  amount  of  manure,  and  that  applications  of  it 
should  be  followed  by  corresponding  increases  in 

A  new  rich  soil,  such  as  ours,  contains  ordinarily 
everything  required  by  the  plant.  No  good 
purpose  is  served  by  adding  manure  if  satisfactory 
growth  is  being  made  without  it.  A  plant  finding 


everything  it  requires  in  a  natural  soil  cannot  be 
usefully  hastened  in  growth  by  the  addition  of 
more  food  to  its  roots.  Strong  fertilizers  will 
have  the  harmful  result  of  forcing  a  soft,  fleshy 
and  unfruitful  growth. 

As  a  general  rule,  no  manure  should  be  thought 
of  until  the  trees  are  cropping.  There  may  be 
exceptions  to  this  in  the  cases  of  very  poor  soils, 
but  then  such  soils  are  unsuitable  for  plantations, 
and  should  not  have  been  chosen. 

A  soil  is  impoverished  only  to  the  extent  of  the 
crop  removed  from  it;  and  against  this  must  be 
placed  the  return  made  by  the  trees  in  the  shedding 
of  their  leaves,  the  addition  of  nitrogen  carried 
from  the  atmosphere  by  rain,  and  the  action  of 
the  roots  of  the  trees  and  cultivation  in  aiding 
nitrifying  bacteria  in  the  soil  to  bring  into  an 
available  condition  the  large  stores  of  unavailable 
food.  One  per  cent,  of  nitrogen  in  an  analysis 
means  30,000  Ibs.  per  acre  in  the  top  12  inches  of 
soil.  The  amount  of  nitrogen  removed  by  an 
average  crop  of  Coffee  or  Cocoa  we  are  not  aware 
of,  but  we  know  that  a  wheat  crop  removes  20  Ibs. 
So  we  see  how  vast  are  the  stores  of  plant  food  in 
a  good  soil,  and  how  much  we  can  increase  fertility 


by  assisting  nature  to  render  these  stores  available 
to  our  trees. 

Nothing  will  so  assist  the  work  of  the  minute 
bacteria  or  ferments  of  the  soil  in  their  task  of 
converting  nitrogenous  matter  into  soluble  plant 
food  as  good  tillage,  which  results  in  the  conserva- 
tion of  moisture  and  the  correction  of  acidity. 

Trees  suffering  from  an  insufficiency  of  food  will 
soon  render  this  apparent  by  their  poor  growth, 
and  failure  to  perfect  good  crops.  When  this 
occurs,  artificial  manuring  must  be  resorted  to. 
The  kind  of  manure  best  suited  depends  upon 
the  crop  and  the  nature  of  the  soil,  and  here 
chemical  analysis  can  give  the  best  advice  by 
showing  where  the  deficiency  is. 

It  has  been  proved  over  and  over  again  that  on 
an  average  soil  no  system  of  manuring  gives  such 
good  and  lasting  results  as  mulching,  farmyard 
manure,  weeds,  leaves,  etc.  being  used  for  the 
purpose.  The  use  of  an  artificial  fertiliser  would 
give  a  quicker  return,  but  over  a  long  period, 
mulching  has  proved  its  superiority.  This 
system  of  manuring  cannot  be  harmful  to  even 
young  plantations.  It  is  a  convenient  manner  of 
getting  rid  of  our  weeds  and  estate  refuse,  such  as 


fermented  coffee  pulp;  and  the  decomposition  of 
this  material  will  result  in  only  a  gradual  supply 
of  natural  plant  food.  For  many  years  to  come, 
the  use  as  a  mulch  of  such  materials  as  we  find  to 
hand  will  be  all  that  our  plantations  will  require 
in  the  way  of  manuring. 

The  manner  of  applying  manure  may  be  briefly 
referred  to.  The  practice  in  temperate  climates 
is  to  apply  manure  to  vacant  land,  or  amongst  trees 
in  the  dormant  season.  The  manure  is  then 
ploughed  or  dug  in  to  ensure  that  no  loss  of  its 
properties  takes  place  by  exposure  to  the  air. 
This  practice  must  not,  however,  be  attempted 
with  our  crops.  All  our  trees  are  surface  rooting, 
and  any  deep  digging  in  order  to  bury  manure 
would  result  in  the  destruction  of  the  feeding  roots 
which  alone  can  take  up  the  manure.  The  manure 
should  be  spread  over  the  surface  of  the  soil,  and 
rains  will  wash  it  down  to  the  roots  of  the  trees. 

A  system  of  manuring  termed  green  manuring 
has  been  extensively  practised  in  recent  years. 
This  system  consists  in  growing  a  selected  weed  of 
the  leguminous  order,  and  cutting  it  down  and 
returning  it  to  the  soil  before  flowering.  Legu- 
minous plants  have  the  power  of  fixing  the  free 


nitrogen  of  the  air,  and  are  of  a  high  manurial 
value.  Green  manuring  results  in  large  additions 
of  organic  matter  to  the  soil,  in  the  improvement 
of  its  mechanical  condition,  and  in  the  consequent 
increase  of  its  capacity  for  the  retention  of 



Factory  and    Machinery 

To  deal  with  the  crops  in  an  economical  manner 
machinery  is  necessary.  Hand  machinery  could  be 
used  on  estates  not  exceeding  fifty  acres ;  but  for 
any  acreage  beyond  that  power  machinery  must  be 
provided.  For  Cocoa  and  Para,  very  little 
machinery  is  necessary,  but  a  considerable  amount 
of  it  is  required  to  deal  effectively  with  large  crops 
of  Coffee. 

A  point  should  be  made  of  having  the  factory 
in  working  order  before  the  first  big  crop  comes  in. 
This  crop  will  be  ready  in  three  years  from  the 
time  of  sowing,  and  it  should  be  borne  in  mind 
that  it  takes  many  months  to  get  machinery  out  to 
Uganda,  and  to  fully  equip  a  factory  there. 
Nothing  is  gained  by  putting  off  the  erection  for 
six  months,  and  a  great  deal  of  loss  may  result  if 
the  machines  are  not  ready  to  deal  with  the  crop. 
It  will  also  be  found  more  economical  to  do  this 


heavy  work  slowly  and  when  spare  labour  is  avail- 
able, than  to  have  to  push  it  on  at  all  costs  against 

Site  for  Factory. — The  first  point  to  be  con- 
sidered when  choosing  the  site  is  the  possibility  of 
a  good  permanent  water  supply.  We  may  state 
here  that  the  supply  necessary  for  pulping  Coffee 
by  power  is  about  800  gallons  per  hour.  On  a  few 
favoured  estates  a  good  spring  of  water  occurs  at 
a  high  level.  By  means  of  a  pipe  line,  this  can  be 
run  direct  to  the  machines,  obviating  the  need  of  a 
pump.  Means  must  be  provided  for  the  storage  of 
the  water,  so  that  a  large  quantity  may  always  be 
available.  The  storage  can  be  arranged  for  either 
at  the  factory  or  at  the  source.  The  latter  place  is 
preferable,  as  it  will  give  water  under  considerable 
pressure  at  the  factory,  and  it  will  not  then  be 
necessary  to  provide  large  storage  tanks  for  the 

If  there  is  no  such  source  of  water  supply  con- 
venient, the  site  for  the  factory  must  be  near  the 
supply,  so  that  a  pump  can  be  used  to  raise  the 
water  to  tanks  at  a  level  above  the  machines.  Here 
also  a  reservoir  should  be  built,  so  that  there  may 
always  be  a  reserve  of  water  to  draw  on.  It  is 


very  unlikely  that  the  stream  will  be  of  sufficient 
size  and  permanence  to  enable  one  to  pump  direct 
from  it.  ' 

If  possible,  the  site  should  be  near  the  centre  of 
the  plantation.  This  will  save  a  great  deal  of 
transport  in  bringing  in  the  crop  to  be  treated. 
The  site  should  be  sufficiently  large  for  any 
possible  extension  of  buildings.  There  should  be 
an  acre  or  two  of  unoccupied  land  around  it  to 
afford  space  for  sundrying  the  produce.  This 
space  must  be  clear  of  all  trees. 

Building. — The  plan  of  the  building  will,  of 
course,  largely  depend  upon  the  taste  of  the 
planter ;  still  it  may  be  of  use  to  some  to  give  a 
rough  idea  of  what  a  suitable  building  should  be 
in  dimensions.  For  a  building  with  an  upper 
floor,  65  ft.  by  30  ft.,  ground  area  is  sufficient  to 
contain  machinery  capable  of  dealing  with  the 
produce  of  a  large  estate.  Still  we  would  not 
recommend  a  smaller  building,  even  on  a  small 
estate.  If  an  upper  floor  is  not  added,  the  build- 
ing must  be  larger.  We  strongly  recommend  a 
double-storied  building,  however,  as  it  is  of  the 
greatest  convenience  in  feeding  the  machines.  It 
also  affords  a  large  airy  floor  space,  on  which  half- 


dry  Coffee  can  be  spread,  if  the  crop  is  coming  in 
faster  than  the  drying  apparatus  can  deal  with  it. 
The  height  to  the  first  floor  will  depend  upon  the 
method  to  be  adopted  in  fixing  the  shafting,  but 
about  10  ft.  will  be  found  sufficient.  The  height 
of  the  second  storey  need  not  exceed  6  ft. 

The  framework  of  the  building  may  be  of  timber 
or  steel.  If  there  is  timber  on  the  estate,  the  former 
would  be  the  cheaper.  If  the  shafting  is  to  be 
supported  on  the  building,  this  must  be  provided 
for  by  making  the  foundations  and  framework 
substantial  enough  to  carry  it. 

The  building  should  contain  machinery  only,  the 
washing  tanks  for  Coffee  and  Cocoa  being  outside. 
A  Rubber  drying  shed  would  also  be  separate,  as 
would  the  stores.  Above  each  machine,  on  the 
upper  floor,  large  bins  can  be  built.  A  pipe  from 
these  should  come  through  the  ceiling  to  the 
machine,  and  if  a  regulator  be  attached  to  the 
pipe,  the  machine  can  be  easily  made  self-feeding. 
Coffee  to  be  treated  could  then  be  shot  into  the  bins, 
whence  it  would  run  direct  into  the  machines  at 
the  proper  speed. 

Besides  the  factory,  other  buildings  are  required. 
These  will  be  a  Rubber  drying  shed,  a  store  for 


Coffee,  and  a  large  open  shed  in  which  the  trays 
used  for  sun-drying  can  be  placed  under  cover  at 
night,  and  during  storms.  All  these  buildings 
should  be  as  near  the  factory  as  possible.  They 
can  be  made  of  any  size,  and  enlarged  as  may 
afterwards  be  found  necessary. 

Machinery. — We  do  not  propose  to  recommend 
any  particular  machines  or  make  of  machinery, 
but  merely  to  indicate  what  is  required.  The 
machinery  should  in  every  case  be  obtained  from  , 
reputable  maker.  Catalogues  should  be  carefully 
studied  and  advice  sought  from  experienced 
planters.  Machines  of  ample  capacity  should  be 
selected.  The  makers  will  always  be  found 
willing  to  advise  in  the  selection  of  a  machine,  but 
the  planter  must  finally  decide  what  best  suits  his 
individual  requirements. 

Engine. — This  is  the  first  thing  to  be  considered. 
It  should  be  of  ample  power,  and  of  the  kind  most 
economical  to  run  on  the  estate  it  is  intended  for. 
On  large  estates  it  is  advisable  to  have  a  second 
engine  also  fitted  up  as  a  stand-by  against  a  break- 
down. A  failure  of  the  engine  in  the  middle  of  a 
Coffee  crop  would  be  attended  by  disastrous 


Pulper. — This  is  the  machine  for  taking  off  the 
outside  jacket  of  the  berry,  and  reducing  it  to 
parchment  Coffee.  The  pulper  is  fitted  to  a 
cyclindrical  separator,  which  separates  any  un- 
pulped  berries  that  may  go  through. 

Pump. — This  should  be  sufficiently  powerful  to 
feed  the  pulper  with  water. 

Drier. — In  our  climate  it  is  necessary  to 
resort  to  artificial  methods  of  drying,  as  we  have 
always  a  humid  atmosphere,  with  particularly 
heavy  dews  at  night.  Moreover,  Coffee  always 
ripens  in  the  rainy  seasons.  A  good  deal  of  sun- 
drying  can  be  done,  but  it  is  quite  impossible  to 
deal  with  any  large  amount  of  Coffee  without  the 
aid  of  a  drier.  We  find  artificial  drying  a  cheap 
process,  and  one  which  does  no  injury  to  the  Coffee. 
Of  a  consignment  sent  home,  half  sun-dried  and 
half  machine-dried,  the  half  treated  in  the  latter 
way  fetched  the  higher  price.  We  do  not  believe 
the  sliding  roof  arrangements,  much  used  in 
other  countries  for  drying,  will  be  found  efficient 
in  our  moist  climate.  The  markets  want  good, 
bright-coloured  Coffee,  and  quick  drying  is  the 
only  way  to  secure  colour. 

Peeler,    Polisher,    and    Grader. — These    three 


machines  are  all  made  to  work  together  as  one. 
They  will  be  needed,  if  it  is  desired  to  clean  and 
grade  the  Coffee  ready  for  sale  on  the  estate.  The 
question  of  the  advisability  of  estate-cleaned 
Coffee  is  discussed  elsewhere.  The  Coffee  can  be 
shipped  in  parchment  and  cleaned  at  the  docks  in 
London  before  being  sold. 

Rubber  Machinery. — To  deal  with  our  Rubber 
for  several  years  ahead  an  ordinary  crepeing 
machine  will  suffice.  On  estates  where  the  output 
is  large,  more  elaborate  machinery  is  necessary. 
Artificial  drying  is  also  resorted  to,  but  it  will  be 
several  years  before  we  need  to  think  of  such 

Erection  of  Machinery  and  Arrangement. — 
It  is  not  necessary  to  follow  strictly  the  plans 
set  out  by  the  suppliers  as  regards  the  disposal 
of  machinery,  but  their  working  plans  for 
erection  should  be  rigidly  adhered  to.  The  work 
should  be  done  under  the  supervision  of  a  com- 
petent engineer. 

COFFEE  101 


Collection   and   Preparation   of  Coffee 

Picking. — The  operation  of  collecting  the  crop 
is  a  very  simple  one,  but  it  demands  a  large  amount 
of  labour  and  must  be  performed  at  a  definite  time. 
The  period  over  which  berries  may  be  allowed  to 
remain  on  the  tree  after  becoming  ripe  is  only  a 
few  days.  The  pulp  surrounding  the  beans  then 
commences  to  decompose,  and  the  berry  drops  off. 
If  the  berry  is  over-ripe  pulping  is  not  cleanly 
done,  whilst  decomposition  results  in  stained  or 
black  parchment.  The  picking  of  unripe  berries 
must  be  guarded  against,  as  a  small  proportion  of 
these  will  result  in  an  uneven  sample  of  Coffee. 

The  berry  is  ready  for  picking  when  it  has 
turned  red.  'Occasionally,  in  very  wet  weather, 
the  berries  will  not  assume  a  bright  red  colour,  but 
remain,  even  when  fully  ripe,  a  dull  yellowish 
colour.  A  good  test  of  ripeness  is  to  pick  a  few 
berries  and  press  them  between  a  finger  and 


thumb.  If  ripe  the  beans  will  easily  shoot  out  of 
the  jacket,  and  be  quite  free  of  it.  If  unripe  it 
will  take  considerable  pressure  to  separate  them 
from  the  jacket.  If  the  trees  are  cleanly  picked 
it  will  be  found  sufficient  to  go  over  the  fields  at 
intervals  of  six  days. 

A  considerable  amount  of  supervision  is 
necessary  to  prevent  waste  in  picking.  The  men 
will,  of  course,  do  the  work  by  task,  but  it  will  be 
necessary  to  secure  that  it  is  properly  done.  Each 
picker  should  take  a  row  of  trees,  except  in  the 
case  in  which  small  children  are  employed,  when 
it  is  advisable  to  put  a  child  and  an  adult  together, 
as  the  children  cannot  reach  the  upper  branches  of 
the  trees.  The  pickers  should  entirely  finish  each 
tree  before  leaving  it  for  the  next,  and  a  rule 
should  be  made  that  when  a  tree  has  been  picked 
all  dropped  berries  must  be  picked  up  from  the 
ground  underneath.  A  few  berries  always  drop 
off,  and  more  are  dropped  by  the  pickers.  Con- 
siderable waste  takes  place  if  these  are  not 
gathered  up. 

We  have  found  it  pay  to  give  the  men  demon- 
strations in  the  best  way  of  picking.  Although 
the  work  is  performed  as  task  work,  it  is  in  the 

COFFEE  103 

interests  of  the  employer  that  the  men  shall  com- 
plete it  as  easily  as  possible.  A  new  man  will  be 
observed  walking  round  a  tree  picking  a  berry  here 
and  there,  his  basket  probably  at  the  next  tree, 
where  he  will  walk  with  a  handful  of  berries. 
Such  a  man  gets  disheartened  as  the  day  wears  on 
and  he  sees  no  chance  of  fulfilling  his  task.  The 
trained  picker,  however,  will  be  found  to  start  at 
the  top  of  the  tree,  and,  taking  each  branch  as  he 
comes  to  it,  strip  it  of  the  ripe  fruit.  He  keeps 
his  basket  at  his  feet  and  picks  with  both  hands. 

The  picker,  when  his  measure  is  full,  carries  it 
out  to  the  nearest  road,  where  the  Coffee  is  bagged, 
and  the  fact  is  recorded  to  his  credit.  From  here 
it  is  carted  to  the  factory.  The  berries  are  then 
weighed  and  shot  into  the  bin,  ready  for  pulping. 

Pulping. — This  consists  of  the  removal  of  the 
outside  red  jacket  of  the  berry.  It  is  a  very  rapid 
process,  and  unless  very  large  quantities  of  Coffee 
are  coming  in,  it  is  not  necessary  to  run  the  pulper 
for  more  than  a  few  hours  daily.  In  this  case  it 
is  best  done  in  the  afternoon  so  that  the  day's  pick- 
ing is  finished  up,  as  the  berries  would  not  pulp  so 
well  next  morning.  For  the  best  work  it  is 
necessary  that  the  machine  be  carefully  adjusted 


and  run  at  the  correct  speed,  that  the  Coffee  be 
freshly  picked,  and  that  abundant  water  be  used 
to  run  through  the  machine  with  the  Coffee.  Even 
then  a  certain  amount  of  pulp  will  be  found 
amongst  the  beans,  and  to  a  small  extent  this  can- 
not be  avoided.  The  pulp  can  be  picked  out  by 
hand,  or  it  can  be  winnowed  out  when  the  Coffee 
is  dry. 

Fermenting. — Newly  pulped  Coffee  is  covered 
with  a  thick,  slimy,  sugary  substance  which  is 
difficult  to  remove  at  this  stage.  If  dried  in  this 
state  the  parchment  would  be  dirty  in  appearance, 
sticky,  and  dry  very  much  slower.  This  coating  is 
easily  washed  off  after  the  sugar  has  been  acted 
upon  by  fermentation.  It  should  be  noted  that 
this  is  the  sole  object  of  fermentation.  There  is, 
in  the  process,  no  intention  of  altering  the  flavour 
of  the  bean;  the  object  is  merely  to  clean  it. 

Fermentation  is  accomplished  by  running  the 
Coffee  into  tanks  from  the  pulper,  and  allowing  it 
to  stand  there  until  the  process  is  complete.  This 
takes  in  Uganda  about  twelve  hours.  Water  can 
be  added  to  the  Coffee  in  the  tanks,  but  it  is  not 
necessary  as  the  beans  are  wet  enough  to  ferment 
without  it. 

COFFEE  105 

Washing. — This  is  the  next  process  the  Coffee 
undergoes.  Plenty  of  water  must  be  used,  and 
the  operation  thoroughly  carried  out.  A  test  of 
cleanliness  is  easily  made  by  taking  a  handful  of 
washed  Coffee,  and  noting  if  it  shows  any  traces  of 
sliminess.  If  it  does,  either  the  washing  or  the 
fermentation  is  incomplete. 

Drying. — Immediately  after  washing  the  dry- 
ing can  be  commenced.  This  is  the  longest 
process  in  the  preparation  of  the  Coffee.  For  sun- 
drying  about  10  full  days'  sunshine  is  necessary, 
and  as  it  is  the  rainy  season  when  our  crop  ripens, 
the  drying  often  occupies  weeks.  Hot-air  driers 
are  made  which  will  completely  dry  the  Coffee  in 
24  hours.  For  sun-drying,  trays  should  be  made 
of  J-inch  woven  wire  which  is  sold  for  the  purpose. 
The  trays  should  be  6  ft.  by  3  ft.,  and  3  in.  deep. 
Only  about  1  in.  deep  of  Coffee  should  be  put  in 
each  tray,  and  it  should  be  repeatedly  stirred  to 
allow  of  regular  drying.  The  trays  should  not  be 
put  on  the  ground,  but  supported  on  a  frame-work 
two  or  three  feet  high.  This  will  assist  the 
drying  by  allowing  a  circulation  of  air  under  the 
trays.  It  should  be  noted  that  quick  drying  is 
essential  to  secure  good  bright-coloured  Coffee. 


The  most  economical  method  of  drying,  perhaps, 
is  to  use  both  sun  and  machine.  The  wet  Coffee 
could  be  put  in  the  trays  to  dry  partially,  and  be 
removed  into  the  drier  to  finish  when  the  amount 
in  the  trays  becomes  too  great. 

The  driers  are  divided  for  convenience  into  four 
sections,  each  of  which  can  take  Coffee  in  a  dif- 
ferent stage  of  dryness,  so  that  nothing  is  lost  by 
one  section  needing  less  drying  than  the  others.  It 
is  not  practicable  to  dry  the  Coffee  against  time. 
The  beans  should  be  tested  regularly  and  with 
care,  as  dryness  approaches,  and  removed  at  the 
right  time,  quite  dry,  but  not  over-dried.  A  little 
experience  will  enable  the  planter  to  distinguish 
dried  from  undried  Coffee  by  appearance. 

Wet  Coffee  if  cut  through  appears  white  in 
colour.  In  drying  it  changes  to  a  dark,  almost 
black,  colour,  whilst  when  quite  dry  it  turns  light 
again.  Another  test  is  in  the  feel  of  the  parch- 
ment. If  quite  dry  the  parchment  is  very  brittle 
and  can  be  pressed  to  dust  in  the  finders.  The 
bean,  when  dry,  is  very  hard  and  cannot  be  dented 
by  the  teeth.  This  is  perhaps  the  best  sign  for  the 
inexperienced  to  go  by. 

The  greatest  care  should  be  taken  to  completely 

COFFEE  107 

dry  the  Coffee  before  shipment.  Wet  Coffee  will 
quickly  turn  musty,  and  the  musty  smell  is  very 
difficult  to  get  rid  of. 

We  find  amongst  a  few  planters  an  idea 
prevalent  that  in  the  first  stages  of  drying  the 
process  must  not  be  too  rapid,  and  that  Coffee  must 
not  be  put  directly  in  the  sun  when  washed.  Our 
experience  is  directly  opposed  to  this  idea,  and  we 
consider  the  planter  will  be  very  ill-advised  to 
miss  an  hour's  sunshine  if  he  can  help  it.  We 
have  found  our  Coffee  lose  considerably  in  colour 
with  too  gradual  drying,  owing  to  sunless  weather. 

Peeling,  Polishing,  and  Grading. — This  work 
can  be  done  on  the  estate  or  in  London.  There  is 
a  good  deal  of  difference  of  opinion  as  to  the 
advisability  of  estate  cleaning,  and  at  present  we 
do  not  feel  in  a  position  to  advise  either  way. 
Certainly  London  cleaned  Coffee  realises  a  few 
shillings  more  per  cwt.,  but  against  this  we  have 
to  put  a  20  per  cent,  increased  freight,  due  to  the 
weight  of  the  husks,  and  a  50  per  cent,  increase  in 
cost  of  bags,  for  the  cleaning  reduces  the  bulk  by 
about  half.  The  London  Brokers  tell  us  that  in 
the  event  of  a  dull  market,  London-cleaned  would 
be  in  demand,  whereas  country-cleaned  might  not 


be  bid  for.  There  is  doubtless  a  good  deal  of  truth 
in  this,  and  the  fact  that  the  London  cleaners  are 
able  to  grade  to  the  demands  of  the  day  is  also 
important.  The  difference  to  the  planter  is  only 
-a  shilling  or  so  per  cwt.  either  way. 

The  process  of  peeling,  polishing,  and  grading 
is  a  very  simple  one  :  provided  the  machines  are 
correctly  adjusted,  it  is  sure  to  be  correctly  done. 
The  adjustment  necessary  is  to  have  such  pressure 
on  the  peeler  that  whilst  it  removes  all  the  parch- 
ment it  does  not  injure  or  break  the  bean.  The 
Coffee  comes  out  graded  into  four  sizes.  It  is  con- 
sidered a  good  plan  to  hand-pick  the  two  best 
grades,  removing  any  discoloured  or  broken  beans 
to  make  the  appearance  of  the  sample  as  even  as 

Packing. — Whether  the  Coffee  is  shipped  in 
parchment  or  cleaned,  packing  should  be  done  at 
once.  Double  bags  are  necessary  to  comply  with 
East  African  regulations.  The  bags  should  be 
previously  stencilled  with  all  the  necessary  marks, 
and,  if  intended  for  cleaned  Coffee,  with  the  grade 
also.  As  soon  as  a  consignment  is  ready  it  should 
be  shipped.  The  quicker  the  Coffee  is  put  on  the 

COFFEE  109 

market  the  better  will  be  its  colour,  and  the  higher 
the  price  secured  for  it. 

Losses  in  Preparation. — The  reduction  in 
weight  in  pulping  and  drying  the  parchment  is 
great,  not  less  than  77'8  per  cent.  There  is  a 
further  loss  in  peeling  of  20  per  cent,  of  the  weight 
of  parchment,  or  a  total  loss  in  the  whole  process 
from  wet  berry  to  cleaned  bean  of  82*2  per  cent.. 

100  Ibs.  Cherry  Coffee  gives  22'2  Ibs.  dry  parch- 
ment; 22'2  Ibs.  of  parchment  gives  17*8  Ibs.  clean 
bean;  or,  roughly,  6  Ibs.  of  Cherry  to  1  Ib.  saleable 



Collection  and  Preparation  of  Rubber 

Implements. — The  selection  of  these  is  the  first 
consideration  in  commencing  to  tap ;  and  the  many 
patent  tapping  knives  existing  offer  a  wide  range 
of  choice.  Many  knives  are  made  with  attached 
guards,  which  render  it  impossible  to  tap  beyond 
the  depth  for  which  the  knife  is  set.  Theoreti- 
cally, this  is  exactly  the  principle  required  in  a 
knife  to  be  used  by  the  native  labourer,  but,  unfor- 
tunately, the  bark  differs  enormously  in  thickness 
on  individual  trees,  and  as  the  only  section  con- 
taining the  lactiferous  vessels  is  the  inner  layer  of 
bark,  tapping  at  a  uniform  depth  throughout  the 
plantation  would  produce  little  Eubber.  The  sort 
of  knife  we  have  described  would  have  to  be  set 
differently  for  almost  every  individual  tree,  and  a 
mistake  in  setting  would  have  as  ill  results  as  deep 
tapping  without  it.  It  would,  in  fact,  call  for  as 
much  discrimination  on  the  part  of  the  tapper  as 
the  use  of  an  unguarded  knife. 

RUBBER  111 

We  have  tried  many  knives,  and  have  finally 
decided  on  the  simplest  form  of  implement,  with- 
out a  guard  at  all.  This  is  the  "  Burgess 
Gauge  "  patent.  This  knife  is  in  the  form  of  a 
chisel  with  an  almost  right-angled  cutting  edge. 
It  can  be  used  by  pushing  or  dragging.  It  is  light 
in  make,  easy  to  use,  and  curved  so  that  there  is  no 
difficulty  in  reaching  any  part  of  the  trunk  with  it. 
Other  advantages  it  possesses  are  that  it  is  easily 
sharpened,  and  is  cheap  in  price.  Skill  in  its  use 
is,  of  course,  necessary  to  enable  the  tapper  to  use 
it  quickly  and  with  precision;  but  we  believe  the 
necessary  skill  is  attained  more  quickly  with  this 
knife  than  with  any  other  we  have  seen.  The 
f  Gauge  "  is  a  paring  knife  only,  but  the  makers 
supply  a  suitable  knife  for  making  the  initial  cuts. 
The  latter  is,  of  course,  only  necessary  in  opening 
a  new  cut.  Writing  of  the  "  Burgess  Gauge" 
knife  in  the  latest  Annual  Eeport  of  the  Botanical, 
Forestry,  and  Scientific  Department,  Mr.  W.  E. 
Rutter  says  : — 

Previous  to  the  adoption  of  the  "  Burgess  Gauge  "  tap- 
ping knife  by  this  Department,  the  Para  trees  in  the  Gardens 
did  not  yield  latex  commensurate  with  their  age  and  girth. 
This  was  thought  to  be  on  account  of  climatic  influences,  but 
it  was  discovered  that  the  trees  had  not  been  tapped  deep 


enough,  owing  to  the  blade  of  the  tapping-knife  which  was 
then  in  use  being  too  shallow  to  cut  clean  on  to  the  cambium. 
The  "  Burgess "  knife  has  the  advantage  of  enabling  the 
tapper  to  cut  right  down  to  the  cambium.  Care,  of  course, 
must  be  exercised  by  the  tapper  to  see  that  he  does  not  cut 
through  the  cambium.  Tapping  was  commenced  with  the 
new  knife  on  1st  January,  and  continued  till  31st  March  ;  it 
will  be  observed  by  the  results  obtained,  a  resume  of  which 
is  given,  that  a  very  fair  yield  may  be  anticipated  from  Para 
trees  in  this  country. 

The  use  of  a  pricking  implement  to  be  used 
alternately  with  the  paring  knife  is  now  practi- 
cally discontinued.  The  results  following  prick- 
ing were  found  most  injurious,  an  exceedingly 
rough  bark  renewal  with  many  woody  growths 
being  produced,  which  rendered  retapping  a  most 
difficult  matter.  There  is,  moreover,  very  grave 
doubt  if  the  yield  in  Rubber  per  unit  of  bark  was 
increased  by  pricking  in  addition  to  paring. 

The  collecting  cups  for  the  latex  and  all  vessels 
in  which  it  is  afterwards  put  should  be  of  glass  or 
enamel-ware,  or  some  other  easily  cleaned  material. 
Dirty  vessels  quickly  contaminate  the  latex.  It  is 
almost  impossible  to  keep  tin  sufficiently  clean. 

Tapping. — We  do  not  propose  to  discuss  all  the 
various  systems  of  tapping  which  have  been 
evolved,  but  shall  confine  ourselves  to  what  has 

Full  spiral  tapping.     Botanic  Gardens,   Entebbe 

RUBBER  113 

been  done  in  Uganda,  and  what  we  consider  best 
for  our  plantations  in  their  present  stage  of 

The  principle  of  modern  tapping  can  be 
described  in  a  few  words  as  the  opening  of  a 
wound  in  the  tree  and  keeping  it  open  by  frequent 
paring  of  its  lower  edge,  allowing  it  to  heal 
downwards.  The  wounds  are  made  diagonally, 
so  that  the  latex  will  run  to  one  end  of  the  cut  to 
be  there  collected.  They  are  often  made  opposite 
to  each  other,  meeting  at  the  base  to  form  a  wide 
V.  Several  V's  placed  one  above  another  with  a 
vertical  cut  connecting  them  form  what  is  termed 
a  herring-bone  system.  The  half  herring-bone  is 
the  vertical  channel  with  oblique  cuts  on  one  side 

Of  the  various  systems  tested  experimentally  at 
the  Botanic  Gardens,  Entebbe,  the  full  and  half 
herring-bone  gave  the  best  results,  and  the  con- 
ductor of  the  experiments  stated  in  his  report  that 
he  would  hesitate  to  recommend  any  other  system. 
He  inclined  to  the  half  herring-bone  in  preference 
to  the  full  herring-bone  for  young  trees,  giving  as 
his  reason  the  improbability  of  young  trees  being 
able  to  stand  the  full  herring-bone.  This  con- 

(D  243)  I 


elusion  we  do  not  agree  with,  for  the  area  tapped 
by  the  herring-bone  need  not  exceed  that  tapped 
by  the  half  herring-bone.  The  test  of  severity  in 
tapping  is  the  area  tapped,  and  the  quantity  of 
bark  excised.  The  most  important  point  for  the 
planter  to  bear  in  mind  is  that  every  tapping  takes 
from  the  tree  a  certain  amount  of  bark,  and  that 
he  must  so  regulate  the  rate  of  this  removal,  that 
the  period  is  sufficiently  long  to  allow  of  new  bark 
being  made  as  fast  as  the  old  is  removed. 

To  ensure  this,  the  tree  should  be  worked 
systematically.  It  should  be  divided  into  one- 
third  or  one-quarter  vertical  sections,  and  each 
section  should  be  made  to  last  a  year.  This  will 
allow  each  area  three  or  four  years  to  perfect  its 
renewed  bark  before  it  is  again  required  for  tap- 
ping. For  the  growth  of  the  tree,  a  four  years' 
interval  would  be  better  than  the  shorter  period, 
but  which  system  will  ultimately  result  in  most 
Rubber  being  obtained  over  a  long  period  is 
unknown.  The  tendency  nowadays  is  to  lengthen 
the  period  for  bark  renewal. 

From  the  figures  given  on  page  24  it  will  be 
noted  that  in  all  the  Entebbe  experiments  tapping 
to  6  ft.  was  carried  out.  In  the  Kivuvu  experi- 


RUBBER  115 

ment,  tapping  to  1^  ft.  only  was  done.  The 
removal  of  bark  was,  with  the  Entebbe  trees,  four 
times  as  rapid  as  at  Kivuvu,  but  it  will  be  seen 
that  only  in  one  instance  did  the  yield  approach 
the  yield  per  unit  of  bark  of  the  Kivuvu  trees. 
This  was  in  the  case  of  the  eight-year-old  tree,  and 
it  is  just  where  one  would  expect  tapping  to  6  ft. 
could  be  profitably  carried  out.  There  is  little 
doubt  that  the  tapping  of  such  young  trees  to  a 
height  of  6  ft.  causes  an  extravagant  expenditure 
of  bark  for  which  no  compensatory  return  in 
Eubber  is  secured. 

For  young  trees  five  years  old  we  favour  only  the 
basal  V-system  of  tapping.  The  V  should  extend 
only  across  the  section  of  the  tree  which  has  been 
decided  upon,  i.e.,  one-third  or  one-quarter  of  the 
circumference.  The  base  of  the  V  should  be  18 
ins.  from  the  ground.  The  slopes  of  the  sides  will 
form  an  angle  of  45°.  As  the  tree  increases  in 
girth,  a  second  V  can  be  added,  12  ins.  above  the 
first,  and  the  two  joined  together  by  a  vertical 
channel,  so  that  the  latex  can  be  collected  in  one 

The  manner  of  making  the  opening  cut  is  rather 
important,  and  this  work  ought  to  be  entrusted 


only  to  skilled  men.  Care  should  be  taken  to  get 
the  angle  of  the  sides  of  the  V  correct,  and  to 
secure  that  they  do  not  extend  beyond  the  area 
meant  for  them.  From  the  point  of  the  V,  a 
vertical  channel  a  few  inches  long  should  be  made, 
and  in  this  a  small  piece  of  tin  placed  so  as  to  catch 
the  latex  in  its  downward  flow,  and  run  it  into  the 
cup  placed  underneath.  The  tin  spout  may 
remain  always  in  position.  The  vertical  channel 
is  only  a  conducting  channel,  and  is  not  again 

The  opening  cut  made,  it  remains  only  to  pare 
the  lower  side  of  the  diagonal  cuts  at  regular 
intervals.  The  work  must  be  carefully  watched. 
Tapping  must  be  deep  enough,  or  no  latex  will  be 
obtained,  but  it  must  be  only  to  the  cambium,  and 
not  into  that  most  delicate  tissue.  The  thickness 
of  the  parings  should  be  noticed,  and  the  tappers 
taught  only  to  remove  the  merest  shaving  of  bark 
each  time.  In  time,  with  paring  the  lower  edge  of 
the  cut,  all  the  bark  down  to  the  ground  or  the  cut 
beneath  it  will  be  removed.  The  object  of  divid- 
ing the  tree  into  sections  is  to  ensure  that  the  entire 
removal  takes  at  least  three  years.  If  each  section 
can  be  made  to  last  even  longer  than  a  year,  so 

RUBBER  117 

much  the  better.  The  flow  will  be  as  great  on 
removal  of  a  thin  shaving  as  if  a  thick  one  be 

A  great  deal  remains  to  be  discovered  as  to  the 
best  interval  to  allow  between  each  paring. 
Recent  experiments  in  Ceylon  point  to  the  prob- 
ability of  equal  results  being  obtained  from  weekly 
parings  and  from  alternate  day  tappings.  Should 
this  prove  to  be  a  fact,  it  will,  besides  considerably 
lessening  the  cost  of  the  Rubber,  result  in  an 
enormous  saving  of  bark  to  the  trees.  The  system 
we  ourselves  have  found  satisfactory  is  alternate 
day  tappings. 

The  opening  cut  produces  no  Rubber  at  all,  and 
the  cups  need  not  be  placed.  At  the  second  tap- 
ping, a  small  amount  of  latex  will  be  seen  to  flow, 
and  the  amount  will  increase  with  each  tapping, 
until  in  about  a  month  after  commencing  the 
maximum  is  reached.  This  peculiarity  of  the 
Para  tree  of  yielding  only  to  persistent  tapping  is 
known  as  wound  response.  Different  trees 
respond  differently,  and  if  it  is  found  that  indi- 
vidual trees  are  not  yielding,  the  paring  should  be 
persisted  in,  unless,  of  course,  some  reason  Is 
obvious.  Our  trees  at  Kivuvu  kept  up  the  maxi- 


mum  flow  for  five  months,  when  tapping  was 
stopped  solely  because  of  dry  weather.  There  was 
then  no  diminution  in  the  daily  yield  of  Eubber; 
quite  the  contrary,  in  fact,  the  last  month's  yield 
being  the  greatest  obtained. 

The  tapper  should  be  provided  with  plenty  of 
cups,  and  be  taught  to  pick  them  up  systematically, 
He  should  tap  and  put  down  his  cups  until  all  are 
finished,  when  he  should  gather  and  empty  those 
placed  first.  No  cup  should  be  lifted  until  the 
latex  has  ceased  to  flow.  A  remarkable  divergence 
in  this  respect  will  be  found  amongst  the  trees. 
The  tapper  ought  to  be  provided  with  a  clean 
bucket  containing  a  little  water,  into  which  to 
empty  his  cups.  The  water  will  prevent  the 
coagulation  of  the  latex  before  it  reaches  the 
factory.  He  should  also  be  given  a  second  bucket 
in  which  to  put  the  bark  shavings.  Quite  an 
appreciable  amount  of  Rubber  may  be  obtained  by 
macerating  this  bark.  By  this  plan  also  any  latex 
remaining  on  the  wound  and  coagulating  is 
secured.  When  the  tapper  has  finished  all  his 
trees,  he  should  hand  in  his  latex  and  shavings, 
and  then  clean  up  all  his  cups,  so  as  to  have  them 
ready  for  the  next  morning.  This  is  a  good  time 

RUBBER  119 

to  take  note  of  the  thickness  of  each  man's  parings. 
He  should  be  made  to  turn  them  out  and  exhibit 
them  daily,  and  in  this  way  careless  work  can  be 
readily  noted. 

Tapping  should  commence  as  early  as  possible 
in  the  morning  and  be  finished  by  10  a.m.  on  a 
bright  day.  Should  the  morning  be  rainy,  the 
work  can  commence  as  soon  as  the  rain  is  over, 
and  be  completed  as  early  as  possible.  The  flow 
of  the  latex  will  be  found  to  be  considerably 
affected  by  sunshine. 

Each  tapper  can  deal  with  500  trees.  This 
gives  him  250  to  tap  each  day  alternately.  Each 
man  should  be  given  his  own  area,  with  which  no 
other  tapper  should  be  allowed  to  interfere,  except 
in  the  case  of  absence  of  the  regular  man.  In  this 
way,  the  men  will  know  that  bad  work  can  always 
be  brought  home  to  them,  and  pride  in  good  work 
will  be  encouraged  amongst  them.  No  system  of 
pay  by  results  in  latex  is  advisable.  It  would  only 
result  in  watering  the  latex  or  deep  cutting  of  the 
trees.  Frequent  supervision  to  see  that  no  trees 
are  missed,  and  that  no  careless  work  is  done;  is  the 
surest  means  of  securing  the  best  results. 

Curing  and  Drying. — The  latex  immediately 


after  arrival  at  the  factory  should  be  strained  to 
remove  any  bark  or  pieces  of  coagulated  Rubber. 
It  is  then  ready  for  coagulation.  The  system  we 
adopt  is  to  coagulate  in  troughs.  By  this  means 
we  get  a  coagulum  which  is  convenient  in  shape 
for  feeding  the  crepeing  machine  and  being 
turned  into  Sheet  Rubber.  The  troughs  are  3  ft. 
long,  6  ins.  wide,  and  6  ins.  deep. 

A  bucketful  of  cold  water,  to  which  has  been 
added  a  few  drops  of  acetic  acid,  is  first  put  into 
the  trough,  and  the  latex  is  then  added  and  stirred. 
The  trough  is  afterwards  covered  over  and  allowed 
to  stand  until  coagulation  is  complete.  This,  with 
us,  takes  a  few  hours,  but  the  process  can  be 
hastened  to  any  extent  by  the  use  of  more  acid,  or 
by  substituting  hot  for  cold  water. 

Coagulation  takes  place  through  the  Rubber 
separating  from  the  water  and  forming  on  the  top, 
as  cream  does  on  milk.  The  process  is  complete 
when  the  liquor  under  the  Rubber  is  perfectly 
clear.  The  coagulum  is  then  put  through  the 
crepeing  machine  two  or  three  times,  and  is  ready 
for  drying. 

In  crepeing  the  Rubber,  care  must  be  taken  to 
feed  the  rollers  regularly,  and  to  put  but  little 

RUBBER  121 

pressure  on  at  first,  increasing  it  the  second  and 
third  times.  In  this  way  sheets  of  uniform  width 
and  thickness  may  be  obtained. 

The  bark  parings  are  also  dealt  with  by  the 
crepeing  machine.  Full  pressure  is  put  on,  and 
the  machine  fed  with  the  bark,  a  full  stream  of 
water  running  over  it  at  the  same  time.  The 
rollers  crush  the  bark,  and  the  water  washes  away 
the  particles,  while  the  strands  of  Eubber  hang 
together.  The  mass  is  put  through  the  machine 
time  after  time  until  sufficiently  free  of  bark.  It 
is  then  spread  out  to  dry.  When  partly  dry,  if 
put  again  through  the  rollers,  it  is  made  into  tough 
sheets,  and  has  a  very  presentable  appearance. 

Drying  should  take  place  in  a  darkened  room. 
The  long  sheets  of  Rubber  are  easily  hung  over 
rods,  and  take  up  little  space.  Natural  drying 
takes  two  months.  Where  production  is  sufficiently 
large,  artificial  drying  is  practised,  but  as  it  will 
be  several  years  before  this  stage  is  reached  in 
Uganda,  this  method  of  drying  need  not  be  dis- 
cussed here. 

Smoking  is  practised  to  a  large  extent  with 
plantation  Para,  but  there  appears  to  be  no  certain 
advantage  in  treating  it  thus.  At  one  Rubber 


sale,  smoked  Rubber  may  be  in  demand,  and  fetch 
a  slightly  higher  price  than  Rubber  that  has  not 
been  smoked.  At  the  next  sale,  there  may  be  no 
difference  between  them.  The  operation  of  smok- 
ing is  easily  carried  out  by  forcing  smoke  through 
the  drying  room. 

Packing. — The  packing  of  Rubber  must  be 
attended  to  with  some  care.  Great  stress  is  laid 
by  Brokers  on  the  need  of  properly  grading  the 
product.  Grading  should  be  according  to  colour, 
cleanliness  and  size  of  sheets.  Each  case  should 
contain  Rubber  as  even  throughout  as  possible. 
Boxes  should  be  used  for  packing,  and  these  should 
be  well  made,  and  planed  inside  and  outside.  The 
sheets  should  be  cut  to  fit  inside  the  box  without 
doubling,  and  be  regularly  packed.  Pressure  will 
be  necessary  to  get  the  Rubber  into  a  reasonable 
compass.  No  packing  material  of  any  kind  must 
be  used.  Hoop  iron  should  be  nailed  round  each 
box  to  secure  it.  A  case  should  contain  not  less 
than  100  Ibs.  nett.  Each  case  should  be  numbered 
and  its  contents  duly  listed  and  sent  to  the  Broker 
with  the  shipping  documents.  The  larger  the 
sample  of  each  grade  sent,  the  better  the  prices 
which  may  be  expected. 

COCOA  123 


Collection  and  Preparation  of  Cocoa 

Picking. — The  picking  of  Cocoa  involves  little 
labour  compared  with  the  amount  involved  in 
Coffee  picking,  but  more  skill  is  required  for  the 
former  kind  of  labour  than  for  the  latter.  It  is 
not  an  easy  matter  in  the  case  of  many  of  the 
varieties  to  tell  just  when  a  Cocoa  pod  is  ripe. 
Some  varieties  change  colour  in  ripening,  others 
do  not. 

The  pods  must  not  be  gathered  before  they  have 
become  ripe,  or  a  bad  sample  of  Cocoa  will  result. 
If  left  on  the  tree  too  long  the  beans  will  germinate 
inside  the  pod,  and  a  mass  of  roots  will  be  found 
on  opening  it.  The  Cocoa  bean  has  a  most  incon- 
venient habit  of  germinating  or  dying  when  it 
reaches  the  full  state  of  ripeness.  Picking  must 
therefore  be  regularly  attended  to  in  the  ripening 
season.  We  have  found  that  picking  once  a  week 
ensures  that  there  will  be  no  loss  from  over- 


ripe  pods.  In  Ceylon  tapping  the  pods  as  a 
test  for  ripeness  is  practised,  a  ripe  pod 
being  supposed  to  give  a  hollow  sound.  Our 
Buganda  natives  profess  to  be  able  to  tell  a 
ripe  pod  by  its  scent.  We  have  never  been  able 
to  detect  any  difference  in  scent  between  ripe  and 
unripe  pods,  but  we  are  bound  to  admit  we  have 
often  seen  a  native  detect  a  ripe  pod,  which  by  its 
appearance  we  would  have  declared  unripe. 
These  methods  are,  however,  of  little  importance, 
as  they  cannot  be  adopted  for  the  many  pods  which 
are  out  of  reach ;  and  as  the  bulk  of  the  crop  will 
be  produced  at  such  a  height,  the  only  practicable 
way  of  judging  is  by  colour  and  appearance. 

As  explained  elsewhere,  the  flowers  of  the  Cocoa 
tree  are  produced  in  indefinite  bunches,  or,  as 
Hart  more  clearly  describes  it,  on  cushions.  The 
short  thick  stalk  on  the  Cocoa  pod  is  hard  and 
woody,  with  no  point  of  articulation,  and  cannot 
be  pulled  or  twisted  off  without  damaging  the 
flowering  cushion  from  which  it  arises.  It  must, 
therefore,  be  cut  off  with  a  sharp  knife.  It  should 
be  severed  close  to  the  pod  to  avoid  the  possibility 
of  destroying  other  pods  or  flowers. 

For  picking  pods  beyond  the  reach  of  the  hand 

COCOA  125 

an  implement  known  as  a  Cocoa-picker  is  used.  It 
consists  of  a  curved  blade,  similar  to  the  point  of  a 
bill-hook,  on  a  long  handle.  The  inside  of  the 
curve  is  the  cutting  edge.  Obviously  considerable 
care  is  necessary  in  using  such  a  tool  to  avoid 
dragging  off  the  pod  or  injuring  the  bark  of  the 
tree.  The  pods  may  be  allowed  to  fall  to  the 
ground  on  being  severed.  There  are  several  modi- 
fications of  the  Cocoa-picker  mentioned,  and  these 
are  figured  and  described  in  <e  Cacao  "  by  Hart  of 
Trinidad.  The  pods  should  be  gathered  up  from 
under  the  trees  and  taken  to  a  central  place  for 
shelling . 

Shelling. — This  work  is  not  a  long  process,  and 
is  carried  out  by  hand.  The  pods  are  easily 
broken  by  giving  them  a  sharp  blow  with  a  piece 
of  wood.  They  should  not  be  cut  open,  as  there  is 
a  danger  of  some  of  the  beans  being  cut.  The 
whole  of  the  contents  is  readily  removed  in  one 
piece  if  the  pod  is  ripe.  If  unripe  it  should  be 
discarded.  The  placenta  or  central  tissue  on  which 
the  beans  are  growing  should  not  be  picked  out  at 
this  stage,  as  it  will  be  found  of  great  help  in 
assisting  fermentation.  It  should  be  picked  out 
when  washing  or  drying  the  beans.  The  empty 


pods  should  be  destroyed  by  burning  in  order  that 
they  may  not  afford  material  for  the  growth  of 
fungus  diseases. 

Fermenting  and  Drying. — It  is  in  this  process 
that  the  value  of  the  Cocoa  is  decided.  Fermenta- 
tion is  responsible  for  all  the  points  desired  by  the 
buyer,  such  as  break,  colour,  aroma,  and  flavour. 

A  good  break  may  be  described  as  the  antithesis 
of  a  cheesy  feel  when  the  bean  is  crushed  or  broken. 
The  colour  desired  is  a  light  cinnamon.  A  Cocoa 
with  a  bitter  flavour  is  of  inferior  quality.  It 
may,  perhaps,  be  of  some  help  to  describe  the  pre- 
paration of  the  sample  of  which  the  broker's 
report  appears  on  page  31,  and  which  it  will  be 
noted  was  described  as  very  good  in  appearance 
and  well  prepared  and  cured.  The  fracture  or 
break  was  said  to  be  good,  but  the  colour  was  con- 
sidered too  dark.  The  sample  was  prepared  in  the 
following  manner  :— 

The  beans  after  shelling  were  well  mixed  up  and 
placed  in  a  box  lined  with  fresh  banana  leaves. 
More  leaves  were  placed  on  the  top  and  weighted 
with  stones.  The  sample  being  a  small  one,  over- 
heating was  impossible,  and  the  beans  remained 
undisturbed  for  36  hours.  The  box  was  then 

COCOA  127 

opened  up,  and  the  beans  thoroughly  stirred  and 
then  allowed  to  sweat  for  a  further  period  of  36 
hours.  They  were  next  removed  from  the  box, 
thoroughly  washed,  and  allowed  to  dry  slightly  for 
an  hour  on  a  tray,  being  then  heaped  on  the  tray 
without  covering.  For  the  next  two  days  an  hour's 
drying  each  day  was  given,  followed  by  heaping 
as  before,  and  the  following  day  full  sunshine  for 
all  day  was  allowed.  This  was  continued  until 
drying  was  completed. 

In  Ceylon  a  similar  method  of  preparation,  i.e., 
sweating  and  washing,  is  followed,  but  in  Trinidad 
Cocoa  is  not  washed. 

In  Trinidad,  after  sweating,  the  Cocoa  beans 
are  laid  a  few  inches  thick  on  a  wooden  floor, 
exposed  to  the  sun,  and  constantly  stirred  by  men 
walking  through  them  and  shifting  them  with 
their  feet.  The  fermented  pulp  or  mucilage  on 
the  beans  gradually  dries,  and  when  it  reaches  the 
sticky  and  almost  dry  stage,  the  beans  are  thrown 
into  heaps,  and  handfuls  of  finely  powdered  red 
clay  are  scattered  over  them.  This  is  known  as 
"  claying  "  the  Cocoa. 

While  the  clay  is  being  scattered  men  are 
employed  in  treading  or  dancing  on  the  heaps, 


a  process  known  as  "dancing"  the  Cocoa. 
"  Dancing  "  is  continued  until  all  the  beans  have 
a  fine  even  coating  of  the  clay.  They  are  then 
heaped  for  the  day.  This  operation  is  again 
commenced  next  day  and  continued  until  the  beans 
show  a  polished  surface.  Trinidad  Cocoa  has 
been  prepared  in  this  way  for  many  years,  and 
the  results  of  this  method  of  curing  are  known  to 
the  market,  and  expected  of  Trinidad  Cocoa.  In 
Uganda  we  possibly  could  not  follow  out  the  West 
Indian  method  of  preparation  if  we  wished  to,  and 
we  are  not  advised  to  follow  it.  We  are  advised 
to  turn  our  attention  to  the  production  of  washed 

The  proper  time  to  allow  for  fermentation  we 
have  yet  to  discover  by  experiment.  ' '  In  Trinidad 
the  time  varies  from  four  to  ten  days  with  different 
kinds  of  Cocoa.  The  process  is  complete  when  the 
testa  or  skin  of  the  bean  has  assumed  a  brown 
colour,  and  when  on  cutting  the  bean  in  halves  the 
cotyledons  are  found  separated,  and  all  the  cavities 
of  the  bean  are  occupied  by  the  vinous  liquor  of 
the  pulp  which  has  passed  through  the  testa 
during  fermentation."* 

*"  Cacao,"  by  Hart,  of  Trinidad. 

COCOA  129 

When  large  samples  are  being  prepared  fer- 
mentation may  generate  too  great  a  heat,  and  in 
such  a  case  the  sweating  boxes  must  be  opened  out, 
and  the  Cocoa  stirred.  The  temperature  in 
sweating  must  not  exceed  120°  F. 

Cocoa  will  dry  in  the  sun  in  half  the  time 
required  by  Coffee.  Artificial  drying  can  be 
practised,  and  for  this  purpose  the  Coffee  drier  is 
suitable.  The  newly-washed  Cocoa  must  not, 
however,  be  put  into  the  machine,  but  the  first 
stages  of  drying  must  be  slow  and  natural,  the 
machine  being  used  for  finishing  off. 

Grading. — The  Cocoa  should  be  graded  before 
being  packed.  A  machine  similar  to  a  Coffee 
grader  is  used.  A  small  one  worked  by  hand  will 
deal  with  a  large  quantity  of  Cocoa.  Four  grades 
are  made. 

Packing. — Cocoa  is  shipped  in  bags.  There 
are  no  regulations  in  East  Africa  enforcing  the 
use  of  double  bags  as  in  the  case  of  Coffee. 

(D  243) 



Estate  Management 

FOR  the  success  of  a  plantation,  efficient  and 
intelligent  management  are  an  absolute  necessity. 
Any  attempt  to  reduce  management  expenses  by 
allowing  only  ill-paid  or  insufficient  supervision 
is  false  economy,  which  will  result  in  more  or  less 
pronounced  failure. 

The  minimum  size  of  a  plantation  for  European 
supervision  should  be  250  acres.  With  less  than 
this  the  management  expenses,  with  a  highly- 
trained  manager,  will  be  unduly  high.  Beyond 
this,  we  consider  that  an  assistant  is  required  for 
every  additional  250  acres  of  cultivation.  Where 
the  estate  is  of  1,000  acres  in  extent,  the  staff 
should  be  not  less  than  one  assistant  for  every  250 
acres,  with  a  manager  in  addition. 

Organisation  of  Staff. — It  will  be  found  best  to 
portion  out  the  fields  on  the  estate  amongst  the 
assistants  so  that  each  shall  always  have  the  same 


charge  and  be  responsible  for  all  operations  in  it. 
He  should,  as  far  as  possible,  have  always  the  same 
head  men  and  gangs  of  natives.  On  a  small 
estate  the  manager  would  also  be  able  to  take  his 
share  of  this  work,  but  on  a  large  estate,  where 
there  are  several  assistants,  and  considerable 
office  and  administrative  work,  the  whole  of  the 
field  work  should  be  portioned  out  amongst  the 
assistants.  In  this  way  the  manager  will  be  free 
to  leave  the  estate  on  business  without  any  dis- 
organisation of  the  work,  and  will  be  able  to  give 
his  time  to  general  supervision,  and  to  any  special 
work  which  may  be  in  progress. 

System  of  Allotting  and  Checking  Work. — This 
will  be  practically  the  only  work  of  the  European 
assistants.  It  is  the  most  important  work  on  the 
estate,  and  the  efficiency  with  which  it  is  carried 
out  will  determine  the  measure  of  success  of  the 
estate.  It  is  necessary  to  see  that  each  native  does 
his  proper  amount  of  work  for  the  day,  and  does  it 
in  the  proper  manner. 

In  Uganda,  most  of  the  work  on  plantations  is 
done  as  task-work.  The  coolie's  task  is  set  out  in 
the  morning,  and  he  is  at  liberty  to  finish  it  at  any 
time  during  the  day,  and  then  to  leave.  This 


system  relieves  the  supervisor  of  much  work,  and 
is  well  liked  by  the  native.  The  setting  of  the 
task  should  be  done  in  the  early  morning,  and  the 
work  should  be  inspected  once  or  twice  whilst  in 
progress,  and  again  when  finished  before  the  day V. 
work  is  marked  up  to  the  coolie's  credit.  It  saves 
a  great  deal  of  bother  to  have  all  tasks  stan- 
dardised, and  to  stick  to  them,  even  although  it 
may  sometimes  mean  a  light  day's  work  for  the 
men.  We  have  found  that  the  natives  are  willing 
to  do  a  very  stiff  task  occasionally,  if  they  are 
assured  that  when  the  work  is  lighter  the  task  will 
not  be  increased. 

Measurement  of  such  work  as  cutting  bush  and 
grass,  and  felling  trees,  is  difficult,  but  even  here 
it  is  best  to  give  a  gang  of  men  a  certain  area  to 
finish  as  a  day's  work.  It  is  far  better  that  the 
men  should  work  with  the  completion  of  the  task 
as  an  objective  than  that  they  should  be  just 
working  for  drum-beat.  Planting,  upkeep  of 
nurseries,  and  certain  weeding  which  is  par- 
ticularised in  another  chapter,  should  be  done  as 
day  work  only,  with  more  constant  supervision. 

Office  Records. — Besides  the  ordinary  cash- 
books  usually  kept  in  any  office,  the  estate  office 


should  keep  the  f ollowing  books :  Roll-book, 
Allocation-book,  Planting  Records,  and  Crop- 

Roll-book. — This  will  contain  the  names  or 
numbers  of  all  the  labourers,  with  columns  for 
entering  daily  whether  present  at  work  or  not.  A 
specimen  page  of  a  convenient  Roll-book  is  given 
(page  134).  This  should  be  filled  up  at  the  end  of 
the  month  with  the  total  number  of  day's  work, 
rate  of  pay,  pay  due,  etc.,  and  from  this  the  men 
can  be  paid. 

Each  man  should  have  a  labour  ticket,  which 
should  be  marked  up  daily  to  correspond  with  the 
Roll-book.  The  man  then  knows  what  wage  he  is 
earning,  and  argument  at  the  month's  end  as  to  the 
number  of  days'  work  is  saved.  The  man  gives  up 
his  ticket  on  receiving  pay. 

Allocation-book. — In  this  book  is  entered  up 
daily  the  number  of  men  engaged  on  every  par- 
ticular kind  of  work;  and  the  daily  total  here 
should  agree  with  the  daily  total  of  the  Roll-book. 
At  the  month's  end  the  total  sum  paid  out  as 
wages  is  divided  up  by  the  total  number  of  days 
to  get  the  average  cost  of  a  day's  work,  and  from 
this  the  actual  cost  of  each  kind  of  work  for  the 










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month  can  be  worked  out.  A  specimen  page  of 
this  book  suitable  for  an  estate  in  Uganda  is  given 
(page  135). 

Planting  Records. — All  planting  operations 
should  be  recorded  here.  The  entry  should  give 
the  date  and  the  number  and  the  kind  of  plant 
put  out,  with  a  note  to  locate  the  field  in  which  the 
work  was  done. 

Crop-book. — Daily  entries  should  be  made  dur- 
ing the  crop  season  in  this  book.  The  weight  of 
Coffee  berries  and  wet  Rubber  should  be  entered  up 
in  pounds.  The  number  of  Cocoa  pods  gathered 
should  be  recorded.  From  these  figures,  fairly 
accurate  estimates  of  the  month's  crops  can  be 
obtained  for  the  monthly  returns,  without  need  of 
waiting  until  the  crop  is  fully  prepared.  It  is 
also  possible  to  discover  any  leakage  by  theft  or 
loss  from  the  factory,  if  check  is  kept  of  the  raw 
material  which  is  gathered,  and  the  amount  of 
finished  product  is  compared  with  it. 

Estate  Returns. — Where  returns  have  to  be 
submitted  to  a  head  office,  or  on  any  estate  where 
work,  costs  and  returns  are  properly  checked,  it  is 
necessary  to  make  out  a  monthly  return  on  a 
special  form.  Such  a  form  containing  columns  to 


fill  in  all  the  necessary  information  is  given  at  the 
end  of  the  volume. 

It  will  be  noted  that  all  the  expenditure  has 
to  go  into  either  the  capital  or  revenue  expenditure 
columns.  Capital  expenditure  is  all  the  costs  of 
the  estate,  or  part  of  estate,  until  it  reaches  the 
bearing  stage.  The  portions  which  will  produce 
during  the  year  should  therefore  have  all  their 
expenditure  during  that  year  entered  up  as 
revenue  expenditure,  and  these  costs  will  go 
against  the  return  from  crops.  Buildings  and 
machinery  would,  of  course,  be  bought  out  of 



Cost  of  Establishing  Plantations  and  of 
Preparing  Products 

Capital  Costs. — There  is  great  difficulty  in 
giving  any  definite  figures  of  costs  owing  t-  the 
rapidly-changing  conditions  in  Uganda.  Land  is 
going  up  in  price  by  leaps  and  bounds.  What 
could  have  been  bought  for  5s.  per  acre  five  years 
ago  now  commands  a  price  of  £5  per  acre.  Labour, 
too,  is  tending  to  become  more  costly.  Most  cer- 
tainly the  progress  which  is  expected  to  take  place 
in  the  next  few  years  will  result  in  very  much 
higher  wages  than  are  now  given.  There  will,  of 
course,  be  also  an  increase  in  the  efficiency  of  the 
labour ;  and  it  is  to  the  advantage  of  everyone,  not 
excluding  the  native,  to  keep  the  wages  as  low  as 
possible,  and  to  allow  increases  to  be  only  very 
gradual,  keeping  pace  with  the  increased 

Management  is  also  a  factor  which  may  upset 
any  calculations.  The  costs  of  all  the  various 


operations  may  very  easily  be  doubled  by  faulty 
management.  The  work  can  be  economically 
carried  out  only  by  the  manager  and  his  overseers 
having  the  necessary  technical  knowledge  and 
familiarity  with  local  conditions,  and  applying 
the  knowledge  conscientiously  and  without  any 
outside  interference. 

Leaving  aside  the  cost  of  acquiring  the  land,  we 
estimate  the  capital  costs  of  bringing  the  various 
crops  to  the  bearing  stage  to  be  as  follows  : — 

Coffee  only,  per  100  acres,      ...  £1,500 

Coffee  and  Para,  interplanted,  £1,500 

Para  only,  per  100  acres,       ...  £2,000 

Cocoa  only,  per  100  acres,      ...  £2,000 

These  figures  cover  clearing,  planting,  upkeep, 
management,  buildings,  and  machinery.  It  must 
be  understood  that  to  work  within  them,  an  estate 
of  at  least  500  acres  must  be  planted.  If  less  than 
this  area  is  cultivated,  management,  buildings, 
and  machinery  will  cost  proportionately  more  per 
100  acres. 

Costs  of  preparation  of  Crops. — The  remarks 
made  above  with  regard  to  management  and  cost 
of  labour  naturally  apply  here  also.  We  estimate 


the  cost  of  putting  the  various  products  on  the 

market  to  be  as  follows  :— 

Coffee,  per  cwt 25 /- 

Cocoa,  per  cwt 25/- 

Rubber,  perlb l/- 

This  should  cover  all  revenue  charges  against  the 
estate,  such  as  upkeep,  collection,  preparation, 
freight,  and  sale  charges. 


A  10-ton  Consignment  in  Parchment. 

£     s     d 

Marine  Insurance,  £600  ...       4  18     1 

Fire  Insurance,  £600,  ...         076 

Husking,  Polishing,  Grading,  Land- 
ing, Rent,  Delivery,  Samples      ...       34  14  11 
Port  Rates          ...  ...  ...         0     6  10 

Sale  Expenses,  Brokerage,  etc.       ...       17    5     0 

£57  12    4 
Less  allowance  on  Empty  Bags,      ...         113 

Nett,    £56  11     1 
10  tons  uncleaned  equals  8  tons  cleaned, 

charges  per  ton        ...  ...      £715 


A  2-ton  Consignment. 

£    s    d 

Port  Dues  ...  ...  ...  0     1     5 

Marine  Insurance  ...  ...  0  12    6 

Fire  Insurance  ...  ...  0     1  11 

Landing,  Delivery,  Rent,  Samples  ...  1  15    2 

Sale  Expenses,  Brokerage,  etc.         ...  482 

£6  19     2 

Nett  Charges  per  ton         ...  ...      £397 



Insect  Pests  and  their  Control 

So  far,  our  crops  have  suffered  very  little  from 
attacks  of  insects.  We  have,  however,  with  us 
several  insects  which  are  capable  of  doing  serious 
damage  should  they  become  sufficiently  numerous, 
as  they  probably  will  in  the  future,  with  large 
tracts  of  country  under  the  cultivation  of  similar 
crops.  Scale  insects  have  appeared  on  our  Coffee 
and  Cocoa.  Fruit  flies  have  also  appeared  on  both 
crops.  The  Coffee  berry-beetle  has  caused  some 
damage.  Green  fly  are  sometimes  a  nuisance  on 
the  young  growths  of  Cocoa.  Nocturnal  crickets 
are  on  many  estates  particularly  numerous,  and 
cause  much  damage  in  the  nurseries  and  to  newly 
planted  fields.  White  ants  are  present  almost 

The  trained  cultivator  knows  from  experience 
that  one  of  the  surest  means  of  guarding  against 
insect  attacks  is  to  keep  the  trees  in  vigorous 


health,  by  practising  good  cultivation.  Healthy 
plants  seem  capable,  by  their  own  vigour,  of  keep- 
ing off  injurious  insects;  and  it  will  generally  be 
found  that  an  attack  has  been  preceded  by  some 
check  to  growth  which  lowers  the  condition  of  the 
plant.  It  is  claimed  that  even  the  white  ant  will 
not  attack  a  completely  healthy  plant.  Good  and 
clean  cultivation  should  therefore  be  always  main- 
tained, and  on  an  infested  field,  attention  to  culti- 
vation should  be  given  simultaneously  with  treat- 
ment to  the  trees. 

It  will  be  seen  that  our  list  of  insect  enemies  is 
not  a  lengthy  one,  and  that  Eubber  has  practically 

On  the  staff  of  the  Agricultural  Department,  a 
qualified  Entomologist  has  been  working  for  some 
years;  and  "  An  Account  of  Insects  injurious  to 
Economic  Products,"  published  by  him  last  year, 
and  detailing  the  experience  he  has  gained,  is  of 
great  service  to  planters. 

The  Uganda  Planters'  Association  have  im- 
ported a  large  quantity  of  insecticides  and  appa- 
ratus, and  propose  to  keep  in  the  country  a  stock 
sufficiently  large  to  deal  with  any  outbreak. 

Stringent  regulations  against  the  importation 


of  plants  and  seeds  from  certain  countries,  and 
providing  for  compulsory  treatment  in  all  cases 
are  now  in  force.  It  is  hoped  that  by  this  means 
Uganda  may  escape  the  experiences  of  other  coun- 
tries, where  the  most  serious  pests  have  been  found 
to  be  those  introduced  from  abroad.  The  Govern- 
ment have  appointed  a  Plants  Pest  Board,  com- 
posed of  members  of  the  Agricultural  Department, 
representatives  of  the  Planters'  Association,  and 
of  the  native  community.  This  Board  has  the 
power  of  life  and  death  over  any  plantation,  and 
can  compel  any  necessary  treatment  to  be  given. 

With  all  these  precautions,  there  seems  little 
danger  of  any  serious  outbreak.  Uganda  is  a  new 
country,  starting  with  practically  a  clean  sheet, 
and  with  the  advantage  of  all  the  accumulated 
experience  of  other  countries  at  hand.  We  are 
now  practising  every  precaution  which  all  that 
experience  suggests,  and  can  only  leave  the  result 
to  the  future,  content  that  we  have  done  our  best. 

Scale  Insects. — These  insects  have  been  noticed 
as  more  prevalent  in  a  dry  than  in  a  moist  season, 
and  also  as  most  frequently  attacking  young  trees, 
both  Coffee  and  Cocoa.  This  bears  out  the  remarks 
made  above  as  to  the  capacity  of  vigorously-grow- 


ing  trees  to  ward  off  attacks.  Young  trees  are 
naturally  less  robust  than  older  ones,  and  the  dry 
season  is  the  period  when  vigour  is  at  its  lowest 
ebb.  We  have,  however,  become  so  accustomed  to 
see  young  Coffee  here  and  there  becoming  infested 
by  scale  in  the  dry  season,  and  to  see  the  scale 
disappear  from  it  again  in  the  rains,  that  we  re- 
gard its  appearance  with  equanimity. 

More  noticeable  than  the  scale  itself  is  a  black 
fungus  which  grows  on  the  excreta.  This  covers 
the  leaves  of  a  badly  infested  tree,  and  will  greatly- 
hinder  growth  if  allowed  to  remain  for  any  time. 
The  fungus  is  known  as  {l  Black  Blight"  or 
"Sooty  Mould." 

An  effective  spraying  mixture  is  made  by  using 
1  Ib.  of  whale  oil  soap  in  6  gallons  of  water.  For 
the  scale  on  Cocoa  pods,  Mr.  Gowdey  found  this 
mixture,  used  at  double  strength,  at  10  day  inter- 
vals, moderately  successful. 

A  resin  wash  calculated  to  destroy  scale  by 
asphyxiation  is  made  as  follows  :— 

Resin,  4  Ibs.;  Seal  oil,  2  pints;  Caustic  Soda, 
1 J  Ibs. ;  water,  10  gallons.  Boil  until  the  resin  is 
dissolved,  then  make  up  to  15  gallons  of  water. 
To  use,  allow  1  gallon  of  above  stock  solution  to  8 

(D  243)  L 


gallons  of  water.  This  wash  is  much  used  in 
America,  against  scale.  It  would  be  harmless  to 
Coffee  trees.  It  should  be  very  cautiously  used  on 
Cocoa  leaves. 

A  spray  we  have  used  with  good  effect  on  Coffee 
attacked  with  scale  is  a  kerosene  emulsion,  made 
as  follows  : — Dissolve  1  Ib.  of  soft  soap  in  a  gallon 
•of  boiling  water.  Add  slowly,  whilst  continually 
stirring,  1  gallon  of  kerosene.  The  mixture  should 
then  be  thoroughly  churned  with  a  syringe  until 
an  emulsion  is  formed.  For  spraying,  dilute  with 
water,  using  ten  parts  of  the  latter  to  one  of  the 
mixture.  The  spraying  should  always  be  done  in 
the  early  morning. 

We  think  it  right  to  say  that  we  should  hesitate 
very  much  about  recommending  the  use  of  this 
mixture  for  Cocoa.  Cocoa  leaves  being  soft  and 
tender,  are  easily  damaged  by  strong  insecticides. 
The  leaves  of  Coffee  will  stand  very  strong  mix- 

Fruit  Flies. — Several  species  of  these  attack 
both  Coffee  and  Cocoa.  But  we  have  so  far  ob- 
served only  the  Coffee  fly.  The  eggs  are  laid  by  the 
fly  under  the  skin  of  ripening  fruits.  The  larvae, 
when  hatched,  burrow  into  the  fruit,  and  feed  on 


the  sweet  pulp  surrounding  the  seeds.  Fortu- 
nately, by  the  time  the  pulp  is  sweet  and  palatable 
to  the  grub,  development  of  the  seed  is  practically 
complete,  so  that  little  damage  can  be  done.  These 
insects  would  be  a  serious  pest  where  the  product 
was  a  fruit,  but  as,  with  us,  it  is  only  the  seed 
which  is  of  value,  disfigurement  of  the  fruit  is  of 
minor  importance. 

The  larvae  in  the  pulp  are  destroyed  in  the  ordi- 
nary process  of  fermentation,  both  of  Coffee  and 
Cocoa.  If  the  recommendations  we  make  regard- 
ing the  gathering  up  of  all  fallen  Coffee  berries 
when  a  tree  has  been  picked,  be  carried  out,  very 
few  of  the  maggots  will  escape  the  fermentation 

Coffee  Berry  Beetle. — This  is  the  most  serious 
pest  which  has  so  far  troubled  the  Coffee  planter 
in  Uganda.  The  eggs  are  laid  at  the  point  of  the 
half-formed  berry,  and  the  grubs,  as  soon  as 
hatched,  begin  to  burrow  into  the  berry.  They 
there  mature,  and  then  bore  another  passage  out. 
Very  little  can  be  done  to  control  the  pest,  except 
to  pick  off  and  destroy  infested  berries.  Of  course, 
if  this  measure  is  adopted,  the  destruction  of  the 
berries  must  take  place  whilst  the  insect  is  inside 


them.  It  is  not  so  easy  to  tell  exactly  when  this 
should  be  done,  as  the  point  of  entry  is  not  very 
readily  discovered.  The  hole  made  by  the  insect 
in  emergency  is  much  larger  and  more  easily  seen. 
Generally  only  one  bean  in  the  berry  is  affected  by 
the  grub,  and  the  machinery  used  in  the  prepara- 
tion of  the  Coffee  picks  out  beans  so  affected,  so 
that  an  infested  crop  suffers  only  in  quantity,  not 
in  quality.  It  is  our  belief  that  this  pest  will  not 
prove  continuously  abundant,  but  will  be  common 
in  some  years,  and  scarce  in  others.  We  know  of 
an  estate  where  it  caused  considerable  alarm  some 
years  ago,  and  from  which  it  has  entirely  dis- 
appeared since.  We  have  noticed  that  shaded 
Coffee  is  more  susceptible  to  attack  than  unshaded. 
In  fact,  we  have  seen  unshaded  Coffee  entirely 
escape,  whilst  a  few  yards  away,  shaded  trees 
were  badly  infested.  It  would  be  of  great  interest 
to  learn  if  the  beetle  is  a  shade-loving  insect. 

Green  Fly,  or  Aphis. — This  pest  occasionally 
attacks  the  growing  shoots  of  Cocoa.  Spraying 
with  whale  oil  soap  solution  is  an  effective  remedy. 

Nocturnal  Crickets. — The  habit  of  these  insects 
is  to  cut  off  young  plants  close  to  the  ground,  and 
carry  off  the  young  leaves  to  their  burrow  in  the 


earth.  In  some  places  they  are  particularly 
numerous,  and  we  have  known  of  instances  where 
20  per  cent,  of  young  plantings  have  been  de- 
stroyed by  them.  A  few  insects  will  cause  grave 
damage  in  a  nursery. 

They  can  be  easily  caught  at  night  if  searched 
for  with  a  light.  The  offer  of  a  small  reward  for 
all  insects  brought  in  by  the  labourers  will  result 
in  the  destruction  of  large  numbers. 

Mealy  Bug. — This  pest  is  present  in  the  country, 
but  not  to  any  great  extent.  It  is  a  small  insect 
covered  with  a  white  cottony  web.  It  is  allied  to 
the  Aphids,  and  similar  remedies  will  control  it. 

White  Ants. — These  insects  are  very  numerous 
in  Uganda.  They  have  so  far  not  proved  very 
destructive  to  our  crops.  Probably  Eubber  trees 
have  suffered  most,  but  healthy  trees  seem  safe 
from  attack.  We  often  notice  white  ants  climb- 
ing the  stems  of  Para  trees,  and  eating  away  any 
lichen  or  rough  bark  on  them.  They  do  not  eat 
into  the  live  bark.  There  is  very  little  doubt  that 
in  most  cases  where  damage  has  been  done,  the 
tree  was  previously  injured  in  some  other  way. 

The  Ant-hills  should  be  dug  out  all  over  the 
estate.  The  destruction  of  the  Queen  Ant  usually 


results  in  the  abandonment  of  the  nest  by  the 
others.  For  the  destruction  of  White  Ants  or 
Termites,  bisulphide  of  carbon  is  the  most  effective 
agent  known.  It  is  a  clear,  colourless  liquid,  with 
an  offensive  smell,  and  is  highly  inflammable,  the 
vapour  igniting  even  from  a  lighted  cigarette. 
The  fumes,  when  ignited,  are  highly  poisonous. 
For  these  reasons,  the  substance  requires  to  be 
dealt  with  by  some  one  aware  of  its  properties.  A 
wine-glass  full,  or  half  full,  according  to  the  size 
of  the  nest,  run  into  an  ant's  nest  and  then  fired, 
should  kill  all  the  ants,  if  the  escape  of  the  fumes 
be  prevented.  This  substance  is  also  useful  for 
destroying  rats  and  various  other  vermin. 



Diseases  caused  by  Fungi 

At  the  outset,  it  may  be  well  to  point  out  a  few 
mistakes  made  by  practical  men,  as  to  the  parti- 
cular way  in  which  fungi  do  their  work. 

It  is  usual  to  hear  the  planter  asserting,  after 
the  presence  of  the  disease  has  become  obvious, 
that  up  to  a  certain  date  the  plants  were  quite 
healthy.  This  is  generally  a  mistake.  When  the 
seed  of  any  plant  is  sown,  some  considerable  time 
is  occupied  in  the  formation  of  root,  stem,  leaves, 
etc.,  and  in  storing  up  food,  before  the  fruit  is  pro- 
duced. In  a  similar  manner,  when  the  spore  of  a 
fungus  falls  on  a  leaf,  say  a  Coffee  leaf,  it  germi- 
nates on  the  surface  of  the  leaf.  The  sprout  enters 
into  the  tissues,  and  there  forms  a  quantity  of 
spawn  or  mycelium,  obtaining  its  food  from  the 


leaf.  In  course  of  time,  the  leaf  ceases  to  provide 
food  for  the  fungus,  and  the  latter  then  bursts 
through  the  skin  of  the  leaf  and  bears  on  its  sur- 
face a  crop  of  spores,  which  are  scattered  by  wind, 
birds,  insects,  etc.,  and  infect  other  leaves.  In 
reality  the  leaf  was  diseased  from  the  moment  the 
sprout  of  the  spore  entered  its  tissues,  although 
sometimes  weeks  passed  before  there  was  any  out- 
ward sign  of  the  presence  of  the  parasite  in  those 

This  statement  is  true  of  hundreds  of  kinds  of 
fungi  that  are  parasitic  on  plants  both  wild  and 
cultivated ;  in  fact,  it  is  true  of  all  parasitic  fungi, 
with  the  exception  of  a  few  mildews,  of  which  the 
Hop  mildew  and  Eose  mildew  are  examples.  Such 
being  the  case,  it  is  quite  obvious  that  the  only  way 
to  guard  against  infection  from  the  spores  of  fungi 
is  to  prevent  their  entrance  into  the  leaf,  and 
spraying  with  a  fungicide  is  the  only  known 
method  of  accomplishing  this  object.  We  are 
quite  well  aware  of  the  many  practical  difficulties 
standing  in  the  way  of  spraying  in  the  tropics- 
torrential  rains,  nature  of  the  ground,  labour,  etc., 
yet  in  very  many  instances  spraying  could  be 
practised  with  decidedly  beneficial  results. 


Spraying  is  not  a  curative  measure,  for  the 
reason  given  above,  that  the  growing  portion  of 
the  fungus  is  in  the  tissues  of  the  leaf,  and  cannot 
be  reached  by  the  fungicide.  What  spraying  will 
do,  if  applied  in  time,  is  to  prevent  the  first  infec- 
tion of  leaves,  by  covering  the  surface  with  a  sub- 
stance poisonous  to  the  germinating  spores. 

To  accomplish  this  object  the  disease  should  be 
anticipated;  in  other  words,  spraying  should 
commence  before  the  disease  appears.  An  ex- 
perienced planter  will  know  at  what  particular 
season  of  the  year  infection  is  most  likely  to  occur. 
When  a  disease  is  present  spraying  will  arrest  its 
progress,  by  destroying  the  spores  that  alight  on 
the  surface  of  the  foliage. 

Bordeaux  mixture  is,  perhaps,  the  best  for 
spraying,  and  it  can  now  be  procured  in  the  dry 
condition,  ready  for  dissolving  in  water  when  re- 
quired. As  a  rule,  spraying  is  continued  for  too 
long  a  time.  The  moment  the  solution  commences 
to  drip  from  the  foliage  it  is  time  to  stop.  Always 
commence  with  a  solution  containing  more  water 
than  is  prescribed  in  the  directions  given,  and 
gradually  decrease  the  amount  of  water  until  the 
leaves  show  injury.  As  some  plants  will  bear  a 


stronger  solution  than  others,  experience  will  be 
the  great  guide  in  such  matters. 

So  far,  we  have  been  dealing  with  those  fungi 
which  attack  the  foliage  and  above-ground  parts  of 
plants  by  means  of  spores.  We  now  come  to  con- 
sider a  second  group,  which  have  a  different  and 
far  more  damaging  method  of  attack.  To  this 
second  group  belong  those  fungi  whose  spawn  or 
mycelium  live  in  the  humus  and  travel  long 
distances  in  search  of  new  plant  roots,  when  the 
tree  they  have  already  attacked  is  dying  from  their 
ravages,  and  no  longer  supplies  the  required 
amount  of  food.  The  fungus  produces  its  fruit 
on  some  above-ground  portion  of  the  dying  tree,  so 
that  the  spores  may  be  carried  by  various  agencies 
and  infect  other  trees. 

Although  the  fungi  belonging  to  this  group  can 
reproduce  themselves  by  spores,  yet  the  most 
serious  injury  they  do  is  by  means  of  their  myce- 
lium, which  is  usually  in  the  form  of  white  strands 
spreading  in  the  ground  in  every  direction  a  few 
inches  below  the  surface.  To  this  group  belong 
the  large  bracket-like  fungi,  the  large  agarics,  or 
toadstools,  as  well  as  many  minute  or  microscopic 
kinds.  Stumps  left  in  the  ground,  as  is  well 


known,  are  centres  of  infection  from  which  myce- 
lium spreads  in  the  soil  in  every  direction.  The 
most  effective  means,  therefore,  of  checking  the 
spread  of  mycelium  would  be  to  remove  all  stumps. 
This,  however,  for  various  reasons  cannot  be  done, 
at  least  not  at  once.  As  the  strands  of  mycelium 
extend  through  the  soil,  growth  takes  place  only 
at  the  tip,  the  back  portion  dying  away.  The  tip 
or  growing  point  consequently  requires  food  at 
every  stage  of  its  progress.  If  such  food  is  with- 
held it  dies  at  once.  This  knowledge  affords  a 
means  of  checking  the  spread  of  mycelium  in  the 
soil  by  means  of  open  trenches.  Such  trenches 
need  not  be  more  than  a  foot  wide,  and  about  a 
foot  in  depth.  If  an  open  trench  of  this  descrip- 
tion was  made  round  every  stump,  the  spread  of 
mycelium  from  such  infected  centres  would  be 
practically  arrested.  Similar  open  trenches  break- 
ing up  the  entire  portion  planted  into  small  areas 
would  also  go  far  towards  checking  the  under- 
ground spread  of  fungi,  which  cause  far  more  in- 
jury to  cultivated  plants  in  the  virgin  forest  than 
is  usually  realised.  Of  course,  as  in  the  case  of 
spraying,  the  difficulty  of  keeping  open  trenches 
in  the  tropics  would  be  serious  in  many  localities, 


yet  it  is  well  to  know  how  to  apply  the  only  prac- 
tical remedy  against  ground  fungi. 

Almost  invariably  the  first  symptom  shown  by  a 
plant  whose  root  is  attacked  by  a  fungus,  is  a  re- 
duction in  the  amount  of  foliage,  and  also  a  more 
or  less  marked  reduction  in  the  size  of  the  indi- 
vidual leaves  which  wilt  and  fall  early  and  the 
tree  dies.  Of  course,  the  time  elapsing  before  a 
tree  is  killed  by  a  root  fungus  varies  according  to 
the  intensity  of  the  attack.  To  make  certain  that 
a  fungus  is  present  in  the  root,  or  collar,  remove  a 
portion  of  bark  from  either  of  these  parts,  and 
the  presence  of  mycelium,  usually  white  in  colour, 
proves  that  the  injury  is  caused  by  a  fungus.  The 
mycelium  of  the  fungus  gradually  spreads  in  the 
tissue  of  the  root  and  collar,  and  ultimately  chokes 
up  the  water-conducting  system  of  the  tree,  thus 
but  little  water  can  ascend  from  the  root  into  the 
leaves,  which,  therefore,  wilt,  and  the  plant  is 
practically  starved  to  death. 


Coffee  Leaf  Disease 

(Hemileia  vastatrix) 

This  too  familiar  disease,  when  once  seen,  can- 
not be  mistaken  for  any  other  parasite  on  Coffee. 
The  leaf  is  the  part  most  frequently  attacked,  the 
fungus  bursting  through  the  skin  under  the  form 
of  deep  orange,  powdery  patches  which  are  com- 
posed of  the  spores,  or  reproductive  bodies  of  the 
fungus.  The  spores  are  of  two  kinds  and  serve 
different  purposes.  The  most  numerous  kind  are 
capable  of  germinating  and  infecting  a  plant  the 
moment  they  are  mature,  and  it  is  owing  to  these 
spores  that  the  disease  spreads  so  rapidly  when  it 
has  once  gained  a  foothold.  The  second  form  of 
spore,  which  grows  mixed  with  the  more  numerous 
kind,  is  known  as  a  resting  spore.  It  does  not  ger- 
minate at  once,  but  remains  attached  to  the  leaf, 
which  usually  falls  to  the  ground  soon  after  the 
mass  of  spores  has  been  shed.  The  resting  spores, 
still  attached  to  the  fallen  dead  leaves,  germinate 
in  course  of  time,  and  set  up  a  fresh  wave  of  dis- 
ease. The  young  shoots  and  berries  are  also  some- 

Fig.  1.— Portion  of  Coffee   Leaf  with   clusters  of  Hemileia  vastatrix,  the  Coffee 

leaf  disease. 

Fig.  2. — Summer  spore  of  same  that  enables  the  disease  to  spread  quickly, 
Fig.  3.— Winter  spore  of  same  that  starts  the  infection  for  the  season. 
Fig.  4. — Corticium  salmonicolor  on  branch  of  Para  Rubber. 
Fig.  5.— Mycelium  or  spawn  of  Ponies  lignostta  on  root  of  Para  Rubber. 
f\g.  6.— Fruit  of  Fotnes  lignosus. 
fig.  7.— Section  of  same.  1-8 


times  attacked  by  the  fungus.  Until  recently  the 
fungus  was  considered  to  be  confined  to  Coffea 
arabica  and  Coffea  liberica,  but  it  has  now  been 
found  on  other  kinds,  such  as  Coffea  robusta,  and 
on  certain  so-called  "  wild  "  kinds  of  Coffee  found 
in  Africa.  Unfortunately,  up  to  the  present,  no 
means  of  keeping  this  parasite  in  check  have  been 
discovered.  Spraying  with  Bordeaux  mixture, 
where  practicable,  would  be  effective,  but  the 
spraying  should  be  commenced  before  the  appear- 
ance of  the  fungus  on  the  leaves.  In  those  dis- 
tricts where  the  fungus  has  been  previously  ob- 
served, the  planters  will  know  the  proper  time 
from  experience.  The  danger  arising  from  the 
presence  of  fallen  diseased  leaves  must  be  kept  in 
mind.  It  has  been  demonstrated  that  Coffee  trees 
grown  in  the  open  are  less  susceptible  to  the 
disease  than  those  grown  in  the  shade. 

Root  Disease  of  Hevea   (Para  Rubber). 
(Fomes  lignosus.) 

This  fungus  has  hitherto   been  called  Fomes 
semitostus,  but  it  has  recently  transpired  that  a 


single  specimen  of  the  same  fungus  in  the  Upsala 
herbarium  had  been  previously  named  Fomes 
lignosus,  and  hence  the  latter  name  will  have  to 
be  used  in  future.  Fomes  auberianus  is  another 
name  that  was  given  to  the  same  fungus.  This 
fungus  is  the  most  destructive  to  Hevea  that  the 
planter  has  to  contend  with,  and  its  distribution 
is  so  wide  within  the  tropics  that  but  few  planta- 
tions are  likely  to  escape  it.  The  root  is  the  part 
attacked,  and  in  the  case  of  young  trees,  which 
suffer  most,  the  presence  of  the  fungus  is  not  sus- 
pected, or  seen,  unless  specially  looked  for,  until 
the  tree  has  been  practically  killed.  The  presence 
of  white  spawn,  or  mycelium,  on  the  root  is  the  in- 
dication that  Fomes  is  attacking  the  tree.  The 
mycelium  usually  takes  the  form  of  irregularly 
branching  strands,  which  run  out  into  feathery 
tips,  closely  attached  to  the  bark.  The  mycelium 
gradually  permeates  the  entire  substance  of  the 
tap-root,  softening  it  and  making  it  a  delicate 
morsel  for  white  ants,  by  which  it  is  often  com- 
pletely eaten  away.  The  ants  are  often  looked 
upon  as  the  only  cause  of  injury,  but  if  the  white 
mycelium  is  present,  it  may  be  taken  for  granted 
that  the  fungus  was  the  primary  cause.  On  the 


other  hand,  white  ants,  in  some  instances,  are 
known  to  attack  the  young  trees,  independently  of 
the  fungus.  The  fruit  of  the  fungus  is  produced 
only  on  dead  wood,  and  is  rarely  seen  on  Rubber 
plants,  but  is  generally  abundant  on  stumps  of  cer- 
tain kinds  of  trees.  These  particular  fungi  are 
commonly  known  as  bracket-fungi,  because  they 
grow  out  of  the  stump  in  the  form  of  a  flap  or 
bracket,  more  or  less  approaching  the  semi-circular 
in  shape.  The  upper  surface  is  concentrically 
grooved,  and  its  colour  is  yellowish-brown,  with 
darker  concentric  bands ;  the  edge,  when  the  fun- 
gus is  growing,  is  thickened  and  clear  yellow  in 
colour;  the  under-side  is  orange,  but  afterwards 
becomes  reddish-brown,  and  it  is  covered  all  over 
with  crowded  minute  holes.  The  fungus  is  two  to 
four  inches  across,  and  rather  thin.  It  often 
grows  in  over-lapping  tiers,  and  when  dry  is  hard 
and  brittle. 

The  great  amount  of  mischief  done  by  this  fun- 
gus in  Rubber  plantations  is  due  to  the  spread  of 
mycelium  in  the  soil,  from  stumps  infested  with 
it.  Obviously,  the  most  certain  remedy  is  to  have 
all  such  centres  of  infection  in  the  way  of  stumps 
removed.  The  next  best  course  is  to  make  a  trench 

(D  243)  M 


round  each  stump,  and  if  lime  is  procurable  to 
work  some  into  the  soil  round  each  stump.  A  pre- 
paration known  as  "  Fungal  "  is  excellent  for  this 
purpose,  and  could,  with  advantage,  be  worked 
into  the  soil  throughout  the  plantation.  Its  effect 
on  soil  fungi  is  drastic.  All  fruits  of  the  fungus 
appearing  on  stumps  should  be  collected  and 
burned,  otherwise  the  spores  are  scattered  far  and 
wide,  and  start  new  centres  of  disease. 

Black  Blight 

(A  sterina  tenuissima.) 

This  fungus,  and  allied  kinds,  form  black 
patches,  or  stains,  on  the  bark  and  fruit  of  Hevea. 
In  some  instances,  there  is  a  mere  blackish  stain ; 
in  others  more  or  less  velvety  patches  are  present. 
These  fungi  are  not  parasitic;  they  live  on  the 
sugary  secretion  from  the  nectaries  at  the  base  of 
the  leaf,  or  on  the  sugary  secretions  of  various  in- 
sects. Spraying  with  an  insecticide  would  meet 
the  case,  but  the  fungus  does  no  harm,  and  unless 
present  in  great  quantity  it  is  scarcely  worth  the 


Brown   Root   Disease 

(Hymenocliaete   noxia^) 

The  popular  name,  Brown  Root  Disease,  given 
by  Fetch  to  the  injury  caused  by  this  fungus,  is 
quite  appropriate. 

The  fungus  was  first  noticed  more  than  half  a 
century  ago,  as  being  very  destructive  to  Bread- 
fruit trees  in  Samoa.  It  is  now  known  to  occur  in 
many  tropical  countries,  and  is  probably  widely 
distributed.  Many  kinds  of  economic  trees  are 
attacked  by  it,  such  as  Coffee,  Cocoa,  Hevea,  Fun- 
tumia,  Tea,  Camphor,  and  various  forest  trees. 

As  in  the  case  of  Hevea,  the  root  is  the  part 
attacked  by  this  fungus,  and  the  symptoms  of  its 
presence  are  so  very  marked  that  it  cannot  be  mis- 
taken. The  mycelium,  or  spawn,  is  brown,  and  at 
first  forms  a  loose  weft  round  the  tap-root  and  its 
branches.  This  mycelium  binds  together  the  soil 
and  stones  into  a  compact  incrusting  mass,  which 
finally  becomes  sheathed  with  a  blackish  felt  of 
mycelium,  and  passes  up  the  collar  to  a  short  dis- 
tance above  ground.  The  fruit  of  the  fungus  is 


met  with  only  on  trees  that  have  been  dead  for 
some  considerable  time,  hence  it  is  rarely  to  be 
seen  in  plantations;  but  the  mass  of  earth  and 
stones  bound  to  the  root  by  brown  mycelium  is  an 
unfailing  indication  of  the  nature  of  the  disease. 
The  fruit  forms  a  thin,  inseparable  layer  round 
the  base  of  the  stem,  of  a  deep  orange-brown  colour, 
changing  to  a  dusky  brown  when  the  fruit  is  dead 
and  dry.  The  surface  is  minutely  velvety.  A  very 
fine  specimen  on  Cocoa  from  the  Gold  Coast  shows 
the  fruit  completely  surrounding  the  stem  for  a 
length  of  nine  inches,  commencing  at  the  collar, 
where  the  underground  mycelium  ends.  This 
disease  does  not  spread  as  quickly  as  that  of 
Fomes,  as  the  mycelium  does  not  spread  in  the 
ground,  but  only  travels  along  the  spreading  roots 
of  diseased  trees.  It  can,  therefore,  only  infect 
another  tree  whose  roots  come  in  contact  with 
those  of  the  diseased  tree. 

Diseased  trees  should  be  dug  out  and  the 
branches  of  the  roots  also  removed,  as  far  as  prac- 
ticable. The  soil  all  round  should  be  treated  with 
quicklime  or  "  Fungal." 



(Phytophthora  faberi.) 

This  parasite  attacks  both  Hevea  and  Cocoa, 
causing  injury  to  the  stem  and  the  pods  in  both 
instances.  The  fungus  itself  cannot  be  seen  with- 
out the  aid  of  a  microscope.  The  external  symp- 
toms of  its  presence  are  not  very  obvious  in  Hevea. 
The  ordinary  indications  of  a  canker  are  absent, 
the  bark  not  being  rough  or  cracked  in  any  way. 
In  fact,  Fetch  states  that  a  tree  may  be  killed  and 
all  its  bark  decayed  without  showing  any  rough- 
ness or  open  wounds.  The  same  author  states  that 
a  sudden  stoppage  in  the  yield  of  latex  often 
suggests  the  disease.  Under  these  circumstances, 
if,  when  the  outer  layer  of  brown  bark  is  scraped 
off,  a  black  layer  is  seen,  and  the  cortex  below  this 
is  found  to  be  discoloured,  the  presence  of  the 
disease  may  be  taken  as  fully  established. 
Diseased  patches  of  bark  should  be  removed  at 
once,  and  the  exposed  wood  protected  by  a  coat  of 
gas-tar,  care  being  taken  that  the  tar  does  not 
spread  over  the  living  bark.  The  fruit  is  also 
attacked,  the  symptoms  being  a  water-logged, 


blackish  appearance.  According  to  Fetch,  fruits 
that  are  attacked  become  shrivelled  and  split,  and 
rot  on  the  tree.  The  fruit  suffers  most  in  very 
wet  seasons. 

The  same  fungus  also  attacks  the  stem  and 
fruit  of  Cacao,  and  indeed  its  distribution  as  a 
disease  on  this  tree  is  far  more  general  than  has 
been  recorded  for  Hevea.  For  this  reason,  it  is  not 
wise  to  grow  the  two  mixed,  as  one  plant  will 
communicate  it  to  the  other,  and  thus  the  chances 
of  loss  are  multiplied.  Its  presence  on  Cocoa 
amounts  to  a  certainty. 

Diseased  fruit  should  be  collected  and  burned. 
In  the  West  Indies  it  was  found  that  one  source 
of  infection,  and  the  principal  one  in  many  plan- 
tations, was  the  accumulation  of  heaps  of  fruit 
husks,  which  were  simply  teeming  with  the 

Pink   Fungus   Disease 

(Corticium  salmonicolor.) 

This  fungus  has  other  names,  such  as  Corticium 
javanicum,  Corticium  Zimmermannii,  etc.  It 
attacks  many  different  kinds  of  trees,  including 


Hevea  Cacao,  and  Coffee.  The  fungus  forms  a 
thin  film,  not  much  thicker  than  a  coat  of  paint, 
on  the  bark.  When  actively  growing  it  is  of  a  pink 
colour,  but  this  changes  to  a  dingy  ochre  later  on ; 
and  the  latter  colour  again  gradually  gives  place 
to  white  as  the  very  advanced  stages  of  existence 
are  being  reached.  The  bark  then  becomes  more 
or  less  cracked.  It  often  originates  in  the  fork  of  a 
tree,  and  gradually  extends  until  it  completely  or 
almost  completely  encircles  the  trunk.  The  bark 
is  killed,  cracks  and  falls  off,  exposing  the  wood. 
When  branches  are  ringed,  the  portion  above  the 
injury  dies.  The  fungus  is  favoured  in  its 
development  by  moisture.  If  the  patches  are 
small,  the  bark  should  be  removed,  and  the  wound 
protected  by  a  coat  of  tar.  The  disease  is  spread 
by  spores  carried  by  wind,  and  also  probably  by 
insects.  Spraying  the  stems  with  Bordeaux 
mixture  would  prevent  infection  through  these 




Table  of  Distances  for  Planting 

Trees  per  acre  at  various  distances  :— 

Feet  apart. 

Sq.  ft.  per  Plant. 

Plants  per  Acre. 




























10      x    10 



10      x    13 



13      x    13 



15      X    15 



18      x    18 



20      x    20 



24      x    24 






Percentages  of  Various  Grades  in  Different 
Consignments  by  Weights 


Where  cleaned. 

How  dried. 










I  Uganda  cleaned 




.  London  cleaned 


London  cleaned 




Sun  dried,  averages 


Sun  dried,  averages 



Artificially  dried, 




15  58 
17  50 




13  10 



6  00 
4  73 






29  76 


7  40 


14  89 






These  figures  will  repay  close  scrutiny.  They 
show  some  very  remarkable  facts,  which  it  will  be 
important  for  the  planter  to  bear  in  mind.  We 
may  add,  the  figures  are  from  the  actual  sale  lists. 

If  we  take  first  the  sun-dried  Coffee,  we  find  on 
comparison  a  very  considerable  difference  in  the 
percentages  of  the  various  grades  between 
Uganda-cleaned  and  London-cleaned.  The  differ- 


ence  is,  of  course,  due  to  the  use  of  different 
meshes  in  grading.  As  explained  elsewhere,  the 
London  cleaners  are  able  to  grade  according  to 
the  demands  of  the  market,  and  to  increase  the 
amount  of  any  grade  which  happens  to  be  parti- 
cularly in  demand,  by  the  inclusion  in  it  of  what 
might  on  another  occasion  go  into  a  different 
grade.  What  difference  this  may  cause  may  be 
seen  by  comparing  consignments  Nos.  3  and  4. 
This  Coffee  was  shipped  together,  and  was  iden- 
tical. Half  was  cleaned  in  Uganda  and  half  in 
London.  The  figures  are  sufficiently  remarkable 
to  bear  repetition  here  :— 

I  Peaberry  |      Bold 



No.  3.     Uganda  cleaned         ...  |      941 




No.  4.     London  cleaned         ...  ;      6  00 




The  difference  in  price  between  Bold  and 
Medium  is  about  3s.  per  cwt.,  so  that  the  advan- 
tage in  this  consignment  was  enormously  in  favour 
of  London  grading. 

More  remarkable  still  are  the  figures  relating  to 
sun-dried  and  artificially-dried  Coffee.  Consign- 
ments Nos.  6  and  7  were  sent  together,  and  were 
precisely  similar,  excepting  that  one  half  was  sun- 



dried  and  the  other  machine-dried.     The  figures 
are  as  follows  : — 





No.  6.     Sun  dried     ... 





No.  7.     Artificially  dried 



21  '45 


These  figures  show  that  artificial  drying  results 
in  less  shrinkage  of  the  bean  than  sun-drying,  and 
consequently  a  very  large  increase  in  the  higher 
grades  of  the  consignment.  A  glance  at  the  tables 
will  show  how  very  regular  the  proportions  are  in 
the  artificially-dried,  as  compared  with  the  sun- 
dried,  consignments.  To  take  the  Bold  size  foi 
example,  the  sun-dried  varies  from  17  per  cent,  to 
56  per  cent. — a  range  of  39 — whereas  the  artifi- 
cially-dried varies  only  from  58  per  cent,  to  70  per 
cent. — a  range  of  12. 

The  averages  of  the  tables  compare  as  follows  : 





Uganda  cleaned,  Sun  dried  ... 





London       „          Sun  dried  ... 





„             „    Aitificially  dried 





NOTE.— The  Peaberry  in  Uganda-cleaned  contains  a  certain  percentage 
of  Bold.  To  separate  very  large  Flats  and  Peaberry,  a  special 
machine  is  used  in  London.  Hence  the  smaller  percentage  of 
Peaberry  shown  in  London-cleaned. 



Acacia  Spp.     See  Mimosa. 
Acanthus  arboreus,  4. 
Age  of  plants,  18. 
Agarics,  154. 
Agricultural       Department, 


Albizzia,  74. 
Amarantus  blitum,  77. 
Artocarpus       integrifolius. 

See  Jak  Fruit. 
Asterina    Tenuissima,     162. 

See  also  Insect  Pests. 


Bananas,   74. 

Beans,  73,  101,  104,  108,  109, 


Bearing,   17,  39. 
Bidens     pilosa,      77.       See 

Books  (Estate),  136. 

„      (Roll),  133. 

,,      (Allocation),  133. 

,,      (Planting     Records), 

„       (Crop),   136. 
Botanic  Gardens. 

„        (Entebbe),  12,  25,  27 

„       (Kew),  12,  23. 

Bordeau   Mixture,    153,    159, 


Bourbon.     See  Coffee. 
Brown  Root  Disease,  163. 
Buddu,  11. 
Buganda,  1,  2. 
"  Burgess     Gauge"     knife, 


Busoga,  1,  2,  11. 
Bwanda,  79. 


Cambium,   116. 

Camphor,  163. 

Canker,  165. 

Cassava,  74. 

Catch-pits,  61. 

Ceara  Rubber,  74. 

Chesterfield     Linen     Tape, 

Chlorophora    excelsa.      See 

Ceylon,   12,   18,  31,   36,   117, 

124,  127. 
Cocoa,  14,  15,  74,  123. 

,,      age  of  bearing,  19. 

,,       flowering,  20. 

,,       washing  tank  for,  97. 

,,      lining  and  holing,  65. 

,,      picking,  123. 



Cocoa,   shelling,  125. 

,,      fermenting  and  dry- 
ing, 126. 

„       "claying,"  127. 

„       "dancing,"  128. 

„       grading,  129. 

,,       packing,  129. 

„       spraying,  167. 
Coffea  arabica,  15,  159. 
Coffea  liberica,  159. 
Coffea  robusta,  16,  159. 
Coffee,  15,  16,  19,  21,  29,  33, 
38,  40,  41,  83,  88,  101, 

,,        pruning,  87. 

„         drying,  28,  105. 

,,        cleaning,  170. 

„        pulping,  99. 

,,        peeling,  107. 

,,        polishing,  107. 

,,        grading,  107. 

,,        packing,  108. 

,,        marketing,  109. 

,,        loss  in  preparation, 

,,        diseases  in,  157,  159, 

163,  165,  166. 

Commelina  nudiflora,  78. 
,,  africana,  78. 

Conifers,  75. 
Coolies,  131,  132. 
Corticium  salmonicolor.  See 

Pink  Fungus. 
Corticium  javanicum,  166. 
,,       Zimmermannii,  166. 

Costs,     capital,  138. 

„       crop,  139. 
Couch-grasses,  79,  80. 
Cover  plants,  82. 
Crichton  and  Co.,  32. 
Crickets,  142. 
Crops,  26. 
Crotalaria,  61. 


Dadaps,  74. 
Dawe's  Report,  12. 
Dicotyledons,  78,  79. 
Digitaria  fenestra,  77. 

,,          mutica,  78. 
Drainage,  60,  61. 
Drying.     See  Coffee. 


Elephant-grass,  3,  46,  64,  76,. 


Eleusine  indica,  77. 
Entebbe,  5,  6,  113. 
Entomologist,   143. 
Erythrina.     See  Dadaps. 
Estate,  size  of,  130. 


Factory,  94,  95,  96. 

Ficus  spp.     See  Lubugo. 

Flowering,  42. 

Fomes    lignosus,     159,     160V 


Fomes  auberianus,  160. 
Fungal,  164. 



Fungi,  151,  153,  154,  160,  16L 

„      bracket,  161. 
Funtumia,  163. 


Gowdey,  Mr.,  145. 
Giant  Bean,  62,  84. 
Ground  Nuts,  62,  73,  84. 
-Greenfly,  148. 


Hart,  23,   38,   128. 
Hemileia  vastatrix,  157. 
Hevea  (Para  Rubber),    159, 

Hymenochaete  noxia.       See 

Brown  Root  Disease. 

Infection,   153. 

Imperata  arundinacea.    See 


Insect  Pests,  142,  143. 
,,       Scale,  144. 
, ,       Black  Blight  or  Sooty 

Mould,  145,  162. 
„      Fruit  Flies,  146. 
„       Greenfly,  148. 
,,      Nocturnal    Crickets, 

„      Coffee  Berry  Beetle, 


„      Mealy  Bug,  149. 
„      White  Ants,  142,  149. 
.Insecticides,  143. 


Java,  31. 
Jak  Fruit,  75. 

Justica     matammenis,      77. 
See  also  Kamukasa. 


Kampala,  15. 

"  Kamukasa,"  77. 

"Kasibanti,"  77. 

Kaye,  Mr.,  11. 

Kew,  12,  23. 

Kivuvu,   13,   19,   24,   31,    114, 

115,  117. 
"Kuku,"  77. 
Kyagwe,  11. 


Leguminosae,  83. 

London  (charges  on  Coffee), 

140.     See  Tables. 
"Lumbugu,"  78,  80,  81. 
"  Lusanke  "  Grass,  4,  78,  79. 


Machinery,  94. 

,,          Hand,  94. 
Maize,  73. 

Management  (of  Estate),  130 
Manihot      Glaziovi.        See 

Ceara  Rubber. 
Mango,  75. 
Mangifera       indica.       See 




Manuring,  89. 

Green  manuring,  92,  93. 

Mariscus  sp.,  78. 

Massee,    G.,    F.L.S.,    V.M.H., 

M'bogi,  77.  151. 

Markhamia  plat  y calyx.    See 

"Matovu,"  4. 
Mildew,  152. 

Hop,   152. 
,,        Rose,  152. 
Mimosa,  3. 
Monocotyledons,  78. 
Morris,  Sir  Daniel,  37. 
Mucuna      Gigantea.       See 

Giant  Bean. 
Mulching,  91. 
Muvule,  3. 
Mycelium,  154,  155,  160,  163, 



Nanda,  78,  79. 
Nitrogen,  90. 
"Nku,"  78. 
Nsambya,  75. 
Nyassa.     See  Coffee,  N15. 
Nyassaland,  15. 


Office  Records,  132. 


Palms,  4. 

Para,   18,  19,  20,  60,  63,  74. 
,,       Smoking,  121. 

Para,  Tapping,  20. 

,,       Planting,  60. 

„      Yield,  117. 
Pennesetum   setosum.      See 

Elephant  Grass. 
"Petch,"  166. 
Phoenix    reclinata.      See 

Phytophthora  gaberi.      See 


Pink  Fungus,  166. 
Portulaca  oleracea,  78. 

,,          quadrifida,  78. 
Planters'  Association,  144. 
Planting,  1,  59,  67,  68,  70. 
Plants  Pest  Board,  144. 
Prices,  28,  33.     See  Tables. 
Propagation,  48. 
Pruning,  40,  41,  85. 


Queen  Ants,  to  destroy,  149 


Rains,  4,  8,  20,  22. 
Roads,  57. 
Resin  Wash,  145. 
Rubber,  7,   12,   18,  20. 

„      introduced       to 
Uganda,  12. 

„      age,  13. 

„      transport,  45. 

,,      development,  83. 

,,      drying  sheds  for,  98, 
120,  121. 



Rubber,  Collection  of,  110. 
,,      collecting     cup     for, 

,,      herring-bone    system 

of  tapping,  113,  114 
,,      half  ditto,  113,   114. 
,,      paring,  119. 
,,       sheet  ditto,  120. 
„      coagulation,   118,   120 
,,       crepeing,  120. 
„      packing,  122. 
Rutter,  Mr.  W.  P.,  111. 

Termittes.    See  White  Ants. 
Toadstools,   154. 
Topping,  88. 
Transport,  44. 
Trinidad,  26,  127. 


Uganda,  1,  26,  94,  113,  123, 
131,  144,  148.  See  also 
Buganda  and  Busoga. 

Uganda  Planters'  Associa- 
tion, 143. 


Seeds,   12,   18. 

"  Sere,"  77. 

"Sezera,"  78. 

Sim-sim,  73. 

Soil,  9,   10,  46. 

Staff,  Organisation  of,  130. 

Spraying,  153. 

Sweet  Potatoes,  74. 



,,      Composition   of 
Rubber,  30. 

,,      Rainfall,  5,  8,  9. 

,,      Analyses  of  Soil,  10. 

„       Planting,  71,  72,  168. 

,,      Pr'ces  of  Coffee,  33. 

„      Age  of  Rubber,  13, 24 

„       Weights,  169,  171. 

,,       Costs,  139*  140. 
Tapping,  19,  113—119. 


Vegetation,  3. 
Victoria  Nyanza,  1,  4. 


Washing,  97,  127. 

Water  Supply,  43,  95. 

Weeds,  76. 

Weights    of    Consignments, 

See  Tables. 
West  Indies,  18,  48. 
Wind,  43. 
Wind  belts,  74. 
Wind  breaks,  74. 
Whyte,  Mr.,  15. 


Yams,  74. 
Yields,   22. 

,,         of  Rubber,   117. 

„         of  Cocoa,  22. 
of  Coffee,  27. 

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